what is a stock market index

The stock market index is the most important indices of all as it measures overall market sentiment through a set of stocks that represents a market. This index is a measuring tool of market attitude. It reflects market direction and indicates day-to-day stock price fluctuations. The stock market index indicates future about the behaviour of the economy, you as a whole. It is a precursor of financial phase. The purpose of a stock market index is to offer investors with information regarding the average share price in the market. A well-constructed index captures the overall behaviour of the market and represents the return obtained by a typical portfolio investing in the market. A ideal index must represent changes in the prices of scrips and reflect price movements of typical shares for better market representation. Stock index is a barometer of a nation’s economic health as market prices reflect expectations about the company’s performance. Stock market tend to be buoyant when the economy is expected to do well. The bell whether Sensex, if it touches 21,000 mark (presently over 20,000 mark), indicates that the country’s financial and economic growth is surging ahead.

what is stock market index

Stock indexes are known as major economic signs as they indicate what is going to happen in the economy position in the future. The profits made in the stock market are based on upcoming objectives. The long run sources of predicted profits from the companies are reduced to reach their present value recognised as market rate.

Sound market indexes has a set of scrips which have great industry capitalisation and great assets. Market capitalisation is the sum of the market value of all the shares included in the indexes. The market value is achieved by multiplying the cost of the share by the number of outstanding equity shares. Liquidity is shown in the ability to buy or sell a scrip at a cost close the current rate. In other words, the bid-ask difference is minimum.

The index on day is calculated as the percentage of the aggregate market value of the set of scrips incorporated in the index on that day to the average market value of the same scrips during the base period. For example, the BSE Sensex is a weighted average of prices of 30 select stocks and S&P CNX Nifty of 50 select stocks.

There are two major indices in India. BSE Sensex and NSE Nifty. The BSE Sensitive Index of equity share prices was launched in 1986. It comprises 30 shares and its base year is 1978-79. The major criterion for selection of script in the Sensex is large market capitalisation. Besides this criterion, other criteria like number of trades, average value of shares traded per day as a percentage of total number of outstanding shares are considered for inclusion in the Sensex. The scrip selection is also based on a balanced representation of the industry, leadership position in the industry, continuous dividend-paying record , and track record of promoters.

Another index which has become very popular in a short span of time is the S&P CNX NIFTY. The NSE began equity trading in November 1994, and its volumes surpassed that of the BSR in a very short span of time. The NSE and CRISIL undertook a joint venture, wherein they jointly promoted India Index Services and Products, a specialised organisation to provide stock index services. This organisation developed scientifically devised indices of stock prices in the NSE is technical partnership with Standard & Poor (S&P). The NSE introduced this index to reflect the market movements more accurately, provide fund managers with a benchmark for measuring portfolio performance, and develop a reference rate for introducing index-based derivative products. The S&P CNX NIFTY launched on 8 July 1996, comprises 50 scrips which are selected on the basis of low impact cost, high liquidity, and market capitalisation. The impact cost is the percentage marking from the (bid+ask)/2 suffered in executing a transaction. Lower the impact cost, higher the liquidity of a stock and vice versa.

Both BSE and the NSE use the weighted average method method of averaging, whereby each stock is given a weight in proportion to its market capitalisation. Suppose an index contains two stocks, A and B. If A has a market capitalisation of Rs.3,000 crore and B has market capitalisation of Rs.1,000 crore then a 75% weightage is attached to the movements in A and a 25% weightage to the movements in B.

Online Stock Trading

The open outcry system, prevalent a few years ago on regional stock exchanges, has been replaced by an online screen-based electronic trading system. The NSE and the OTEI had adopted screen based trading right from inception. With almost all the exchanges going electronic, trading has shifted from the floor to the brokers’ office where trades are executed through a computer terminal. All stock exchanges  together have more than 8000 terminals spreed across the country. In a screen-based trading system, a member can feed into computer the number of securities and the prices at which he would like to transact and the transaction is executed as soon as it finds a matching order from a counter party. The electronic trading system is superior to the open outcry system of the past.

Internet trading in India made its debut in April 2000. Through this means of trading, investors can buy and sell shares online through the internet.

To start Internet trading, an investor has to register himself with a broker offering online services. He has to open a bank account as well as a Demat account with the broker. The broker is responsible for the risk management of his clients. The orders get logged directly on the trading platforms within the assigned limits designated by the broker to the clients. Even if the client order exceeds the assigned limits, the trader gets re-routed to the broker’s server for authorisation nor rejection. The broker can change the parameters on-line. His software allows real time market information display, client information display, bank account management, and a transaction history display.

In April 2000, their market was bullish and a large number of players ventured into online (internet) trading. As many as 79 members took permission for internet trading. However, after the Ketan Parekh  scam, barely 10 members remained online. The market is dominated by ICICI Direct.com with a market share of about 50% and India Bulls.com with a market share of 26%.

ICICI has emerged as a market leader because it can provide strong connectivity between the trading account, demat account, and bank accounts. Moreover, ICICI’s huge off-line presence in various financial services segments and penetration aids in drawing as well as servicing customers. ICICI Direct leads the pack with 1,70,000 trading customers. It executes an average of 1,800 trades a day; this puts it in the same league as tenth largest online brokerage in the US. Sharekhan.com and 5paise.com have faded away wile Kotak Street.com and HDFC Securities are banging on.

Over 15  lakhs investors have registered to trade online as on March 2011. There has been a sharp increase in volumes after the rolling settlement was introduced. The online trading volumes rose from Rs.7000 crore in 2000-01 on the National Stock Exchange to more than 2,00,000 crore in 2010-11. More than 12% of the total trading volume was routed and executed through internet during 2010-11.

Online trading has driven down the transaction costs substantially and increased the liquidity option available to an investor to enter or exit from stock at his own wish. The internet has provided a wide range of information to the investor which has enabled him to take calculated risks.

The US has the largest numbers of cyber investors – approximately 15 million. Online trading has grown tremendously in the US where nearly 40% of retail stock brokerage business is conducted through the internet. According to the SEC report in the United States, is less than  two years, the estimated 3.7 million online accounts in 1997 almost tripled to 9.7 million by the second quarter of 1999. Schwab, a US-based company is the world’s largest discount and web brokerage firm with over 5 million investor accounts holding more than US$ 500 billion in assets.

indian stock market tips Margin Trading

Margin trading through bank financing failed to pick-up as banks were reluctant to fund stock market purchases. With a view to providing more liquidity in the stock markets and creating a level-playing field between institutional and small investors,  with effect from April,2004 SEBI introduced margin trading in the stock market.

What is Margin Trading

Margin trading allows an investor to invest in excess of his financial capacity by providing only a part of the funds for the deal. The balance funding from banks in the from of short-term loan. Margin trading allows investors to buy shares by providing 40% of the deal value as ‘margin’, while borrowing 60% from banks. Banks provide finance to investors through stockbrokers for trading in actively traded scrips. Initially, 53 scrips forming part of National Stock Exchange (NSE) Nifty and Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) Sensex were identified for margin trading. Banks extend funding within the overall existing ceiling for bank exposure to the capital market.

The securities purchased by borrowing a portion of the deal from banks are used as collateral. Hence, margin trading is a form of leveraged trading which leads to an increase in the purchasing/selling power of the participants and helps them increase their earnings if the market price of securities move along expected lines.

The idea of margin trading is used as means to generate more cash flow in the financial process. Financial institutions, both public and private, can spend up to 5% of total outstanding credit in share trading, with the flexibility of solving their own interest rates. These days, banks are cleanse with resources and have tremendous potential to offer. However, they have to protect their loans and take risk protective actions.

Margin trading is a kind of postponement deal. This option taken by investors to buy more shares without paying them fully. Anyway, margin trading makes a methodical danger that can lead to unpredictable movements in the stock market.

margin trading example

Suppose an investor has Rs.50,000 and he is willing to buy a share quoting at Rs.50. Under the present clearing procedure, maximum shares he can by is 1000  with his own money. While with margin trading, he can buy up to 2,000 shares worth Rs.1,00,000 from his broker by paying Rs.50,000 as margin and by borrowing the balance Rs.50,000 from a bank through the broker. The broker pledges the 2,000 shares with the bank. The bank has a collateral of Rs.1,00,000 backing the loss of Rs.50,000.

Suppose the market price of the share moves up to Rs.60 and the investor sells the shares. If the investor not taken margin trading loan, he would have realised only Rs.10,000 (1000 shares x(Rs.60-50)) as profit. With margin trading, he gained Rs.20,000 (2000 shares x (60-50). His net gain would be equal to to gains from the sale of shares less interest on bank borrowings.

If the market price of the share falls below Rs.50, the bank will give a margin call under which the investor will have to furnish additional funds/securities for the broker to pass on to the bank.

Margin trading offers banks a unique opportunity to park short-term funds at high interest rate. Now  small investors can also get the benefit of bank finance without being exploited by stockbrokers and other financiers. Margin trading is the cleanest from of leveraged buying assets. It is a transparent mechanism for channelizing funds into the stock markets. With margin trading, the chances of scam are also reduced.

Banks will have to evolve adequate risk management system for safeguarding loans given by them against a collateral of securities. Moreover, reform in the payment system are needed to bring about improvement in the infrastructure for funds remittance. Margin trading is a smart tool which ensures a no-default market with high levels of collateral and offers modest leverage to investors thereby increasing liquidity in the stock market.

technical analysis of stock trends

Stock Exchange industry is a challenging area wherein competition is at its peak amongst investors expecting to maximize their income. And for you to not be left behind on this difficult world, several strategies is a must for you to learn helping you for a prosperous growth of your own cash. There are only two achievable results that may happen to you on investing, its either you will loss your money for nothing at all or you can gain extra more profits. So with this, Technical Indicators exist in helping you. Such is an essential, must-learn tactic which will guide you in your quest in the market of Stocks.

In all side of the globe, Stock or Trade Exchange is consistently progressing. Trading contracts are created by both firms and the investors themselves to have the best deals that will really boost up their profits. Therefore, it is one major indicator of a country’s economic stability and strength.

technical analysis of the financial markets

Technical Indicators are similar to a flow chart of price stocks displaying where it is leading to. It contained numerous input of scores of data with a particular formula being utilized..This will just focus on the stock charts. Through this, you will certainly given the updates regarding the Stock Market. Due to the various Technical Indicators which you can use, it is important that you will know their functions. You have to opt exact on how this typical Technical analysis will act an edge on your part either as an investor or a trader. This requires enough time totally to keep attention to your research and knowledge but then you will be on the top of the market of stocks. In this industry you don’t necessarily need as an expert of maths to get yourself started with this business.

It is still best to ask assistance from Technical Analysts even if we say that we have already experience in trading, this is also extremely important for starters. Technical Analyst is the ones who study the progress of assets and revenues in the stock market. Listed here are some of the commonly uses indicators.

Relative Strength Index (RSI) – it shows the present path of the stocks

Commodity Channel Index (CCI) – it displays the stock’s deviation from the authentic cost

Stochastic Oscillator- shows the past circulations of the stock’s price

Average Directional Index (ADX)- simply displays whether a specific stock is needed or not b Mass Index- it determines any reversals when the cost range widens

You can now makes those technical analysis that is accomplished by a well-develop programmed deliberated for the stock exchange markets to be much easier using an electronic trading system. In the present days having data and news those are influencing the markets are not difficult to get. Simply speaking, this platform will certainly help you to make your way to the top of the world of trading. Like purchasing house, you need to verify its worth if it matches your needs and similarly in selecting technical indicators you have to apply them for your own investment first. Technical indicators roll in the same way. If you prefer an indicator that achieves your purposes then no need to hesitate, you should select it. For you to have a good comparison which one could do better, choose from two to three indicators, or else if you choose many more things you will end baffling yourself.

how to pick a stock

While investing in a stock market needs absolute decision and there is no short cut method if one wants to generate good amount of return from the market. In the past, when you might recollect you have taken an incorrect choice, after discovering that most of the funds employed in the market led you to have large failures. It is essential to have some details of the last activities of the different shares in the stock market. This would help you to get some concept as to where to buy the shares. But it is impossible to predict anything, whether you would get excellent earnings or even have failures in the stock market by investing in the shares looking at their earlier performance. So if you have any concerns in the stock market then it is your duty to clear all your concerns so that you do not lag behind any vital details. You might have plenty of concerns like how should I spend, how can I get important information on the market etc. So you have to figure out methods to get response to all your issues so that you need not to fear much.

good stock to buy

It is possible that one may not aware all the concept of the stock market. But some concepts are integral part of the stock market trading and as such their knowledge is very important. Like when and where to purchase right shares, and to track movement of various share prices so that you can select ideal one to add into your portfolio. Practically, it is often difficult to choose shares from the lot of various companies within different sectors. In this situation you have to look at the everyday company information from the various stock markets report where you can get to know which shares would help you bring the highest possible return out of it. Try to prevent getting any assistance from your buddies and family as they might insist you to put your funds into wrong investment. Finding the current information on the different shares would really help you in deciding ideal stock selections for you. Choosing right shares and making correct decisions on investment would help you to create successful investment portfolio and generate surplus funds to enjoy the most advantage from your investment. How the Sensex and Nifty performing in the stock market needs close monitoring. Your judicious strategy on the market would  never let you have any issue on your investment selections.

Adapt Online Stock Trading – Its Easy And Convenient

Online stock trading have various features. Easy monitoring of various shares, quick opportunity access, payment promptness, assets transferability etc. If any mistake made while making investment online, the software is so built that it will show you the mistake and as a result  you will have chance to rectify it instantly without going into long process for amendment. You will have ample opportunity of assessment for the best share/stock those are available in the stock market within your budgeted funds through those sites. You need not to bring cash to the market for investment. You will have the option either to long-term investment or short-term. There are good numbers of online sites, from there you can have reasonable information on all the companies, their past and present performance, and their present price quote. Creating the right mind-set is essential because if you have the right mind-set then you do not have to fear much. Investor with strong mind-set and good knowledge in the stock market never face much problems in selecting the best shares. Hope you now  come to know how to add good stock into your portfolio and trade in a stock market efficiently.

investing for beginners

Keeping a part of our income set for investment nowadays is very important. It is sure that each one of us has observed great significance of investing, but very few people have the proper knowledge on how to multiply it, they only concern about the meaning of investing. The importance of investing has changed rapidly during the last few decades. In the earlier days people use to invest for necessity of their kids for education, support of their spouse etc. Now the economy has changed manifold. Lifestyle of common people has changed, aspiration of newer invented products are increasing, and high inflation has made everybody to save to match with all these unforeseen situation. 1st of all, what is investing? What does it recommend and just how does it work? Exchange of possession of products and alternatives from one person to another. Really to make it easier it is sometimes known as market or financial settlement.

A system that allows this business to function is known as a market. The unique kind of business traditionally was settle, the immediate return of products and alternatives. Later, on one part in the settlement was the materials, gold and silver, an invoice or paper money. These times, modern investors rather, usually settle by way of a method of exchange that is hard currency.

As per recorded history it is known to have taken place since the human civilization. Some even dated back stone age! During Egyptian rule it was very popular. Later, the drop of the Roman Kingdom, and the following dark age groups introduced uncertainty to European countries and a near failure of the system in the civilized globe.

More important factor about it is the fact that purchasing may be divided from selling, and one of the most significant is index option introduction.  Its the money that introduced in the system. The innovation of money, and later credit, document money and non-physical money considerably simple. Between two events it is known as bilateral business, while between more than two is known as multilateral type. With binary dealing options strategy, one merely has to predict the route of the cost in the actual resource, which can be an index, a product, a share or a foreign currency comparison.

If you look intensely, it’s not complicated. When they believe that the cost of the asset within the given duration would increase, they buy a binary Call choice and when they believe that the cost of the asset would fall, they buy a binary Put choice. The profits with binary options are pretty high, as the dealing systems offer a typical of 70 percent profits for an in-the-option choice. What are its benefits? What investors enjoy most with binary dealing options making an investment is the accessibility to a whole lot of times for dealing. These may differ with few moments till week’s end.

Binary option has another benefits, it is easy in comparison to other kind of investment strategies available to dealing.  Let us find out how the worldwide option features. It is the exchange of products and services across national boundaries. In many nations, it has been existing throughout much of record, it is of economical, public, and governmental significance has improved in recent years, mainly because of Industrialization, innovative transport, globalization, worldwide organizations, and outsourcing techniques.

You must have observed something about Business sanctions. They are against a particular country are sometimes enforced, to penalize that country for some activity. A trade bar, a serious way of on the outside enforced solitude, is an obstruction of all trade by one country on other.  African nations know very well what is a trade bar.

retirement income planning

Most of the job seekers get ready to join in service in any status with a standard qualification within the age group of 23-25 years unless he/she pursued for higher degrees. By virtue of luck if any one gets a job within that age group his/her retirement day starts ticking, which means if any one joins in service, remaining working days will left by 36 or 34 years and 364 days (considering 60 years is the retirement age). The recent statistics shows life expectancy rate has increased substantially in comparison to earlier period. Therefore, you need to be well prepare  for maintaining the remaining life periods of yours as well as your spouse, with the savings that you made while you are in service and active.

Any investment planning before retirement is getting more complicated due to high inflation for last 3 years.

Importance of retirement income is significant. It performs an important part in life-long investment choices. In addition, the amount of investment one has upon pension can have serious effect upon austerity, the ability to continue making an investment, is set. As an effect, pension investment portfolios should the great majority of results growth shares in order to minimize the effects of almost certain inflation, and other unexpected economic failure.

Considering the maintenance of life style after retirement one need to have some realistic investment plan so that one could sustain with ease. To earn solid income after retirement here are some tips you may follow to make a strategy ensuring income after retirement. One good news is that employers who contribute their share into 401(K) or IRS in the stock market has increased more than 80% of their value since the market price of 2009.

A reasonable family budget is must. It should be on record so you can consult it often and allow it to determine your objectives. A lifestyle without proper budget is like an aircraft without pilot. Achievements often is discovered in good preparing. You should begin to make retirement-savings programs as beginning as possible in your service career. Your motto during service life should be as maximum as possible and spending as minimum as you can. However, some expenses like education of your dependents, health expenses, regular monthly expenses are unavoidable.

Always think twice before spending. Never encourage avoidable expenses.  Many people want to appear rich at the price of actually being rich. This can cause to investing too much money that does not allow you to obtain prosperity during your earnings period, and the same way of life may happen during pension. It should be kept under strict control. The main root cause for showing rich, rather than being rich, is financial debt.

Increase your investment while you are in service and effective. This appears to be like a meaningless, and is simpler said that execute, but its important. This habit can make you to make various assets in pension, such as property, from which you can get lease earnings as well as increase on properties’ rise in value; fixed-income securities and deposits; and shares, bonds, and gold. As you reach nearer to pension, most economical experts recommend that you need to negotiate with more traditional mix of investment with less money kept in bonds and shares, Treasury notes, deposit certificates and the like. Young employees have the plenty of time in making an investment of a higher percentage of profits in the unclear stock market. Most companies provide retirement-savings programs with tax deferral so that you preserve the resources without spending taxation on it until you actually need it. The supposition here is that you likely will be in a reduced income-tax segment during pension.

Savings that cannot quickly be moved while you will work are the best methods of developing a solid retirement fund. Make use of the various programs that are available to have long-term savings plan beginning in your early service period, so you can have assurance that you will not end up and your family members in want while you are in retirement.

Be incredibly cautious where you preserve and spend your cash. Well-planned and secure financial commitment strategies are essential with the ever-growing existence of Web scam’s and fake wealth-management experts. Develop up a certain stage of believe in a secure savings strategy that is well known and approved before you invest for savings. Its’ an ultimate aim to a perfect retirement objective.

Stock Market Education

The stock market is active for more than 400 years. It’s an independent body controlling the buy and sell of shares/stocks of joint stock companies.  As far as history is concern, The East India Company was the first recognized joint stock company founded in the year 1602. Since then there happen to be tremendous growth and popularity among the investors. Earlier there were different counter in the stock market for various purposes and later developing of the electronic system most of the work is being done by the computer. An investor should aware that the stock market’s behavior is unpredictable and didn’t match with any hypothesis. So before investing in any equity, investor should thoroughly study the company, its past and present results, dividend history, growth and other factors.

Before joining into stock market for investment an investor need to satisfy with various norms of the market. There are some instances when decision-making is really tough, like whether to put large fund in single equity or invest smaller funds into several equities of various sectors. In a stock market shares are divided into various sectors, and each one has their own characteristics. Investors in common often made mistakes while choosing the right decision in selecting sectors. It is therefore advisable to start first with the sectors that one know best or least they are familiar with, such as utility or pharma  products.  So to fine tune your investment, your should educate yourself on the behavior of the stock market and research on various equities/sectors you believe you know best. Here are some of the tips which will certainly boost your confidence.

Availing online trading service

Online trading offers complete freedom to every investor to browse through any stock market or investment related websites and there is no death of such sites on any search engine like Google, Yahoo, MSN etc. You  can search any of the said search engines for getting your desired information and other data that you may looking for. All these information will certainly boost your confidence and help you to choose right kind of equity, you are searching for.

Prepare your strategy and change when necessary

In any eventuality, we need to be absolutely conscious of how situations are behaving, so we can act properly. You also have to be very conscious of the situations and the strategy of the market. However, thorough knowledge in the stock market and proper research, an investor gain access to various terms those are in use in the market. For example, short selling, MF (mutual fund), ETF (equity traded funds, last trading day and price. Most of the investors/traders often use these terms to negotiate with each other. Knowledge on the various jargon uses in the stock market is very important to keep you ahead of others.

Focus on stock market websites

Besides viewing stock market related news and websites read financial newspaper and magazines, and if possible take a short term course on stock investing. Focusing on them will keep you more mature and knowledgeable on the market functionality. What is highlighted in here is that you should aware about most of the fundamental strategy of the stock market. A substantial numbers of investors make loss due to their lack of foresee, and that is very important to make quick decision in a volatile market condition. Great strategists always rules in the market and achieve success.

It is wrong to say that newcomer can’t sustain various pressure in the market, even it is seen that an investor with long period of experience fall into trap and make huge losses. No hypothesis is absolute. Since1929, the year of the great market crash till today, several stock market crashes take place throughout the world, but none have been predicted earlier. This is a fallacy! So an investor should always educate himself with all the updates in the market. If one posses sound knowledge and update information about the market, chances of disaster is minimal. Effort and reliability are the crucial components on this field. You will never walk away from your aim to make it to the success in the stock market.

stock options trading strategies

In the present, lot more people are getting into activity of trading in the market. Previously, only the seniors and the sensible people use to practice it, but these days, even the students’ too who wish to increase the value of their money interacts with into it. In the following, let’s talk about some explanations why trading in the market can be an amazing activity.

Trading is free for all. As opposed to other types of business or investment strategies, trading has no restrictions. Regardless of one’s race, gender, color, interests, academic achievement, and other individual identities are, the stock market cares nothing. The market never cares your bio-data. If you have the wish to be a part of the business, a computer, and a web access (internet connection of any type), then you are part of it.

As described, it is ideal home base business. You can trade from any place at your convenience so long you have a computer and internet connectivity. A house wife or a retired husband, you can certainly increase chance of your income potential through stock market trading. You may start your own trading business as owner to meet the needs of your family without going outside having formal dress up.

People wish to create more cash these days and it’s not just because they want more but because they really need more. With the economic recession happening several years ago, no one has a continuous source of living. Everyone has to work so to have foods on the table. If it needs doing two or three projects, then by all shows, they do so. The amazing reason about working is it allows you produce extra without carrying out as much difficult work to do. Sure, you have to do ideas execute, but this can help you acquire more benefits than you can feel about.

Trading makes quick returns. Returns are faster while doing trading in a market. After few dealings you made to know, whether you designed the right move or not. It’s definitely faster than any other trading activity. If you really experience good result in a short period why not go ahead?

It doesn’t limit you’re a while to enthusiasm. Biggest task of the corporation scenario is time management of employees’ time schedule with management time. They always need to come in and go out of work on a typical work schedule. They also need to comply with a certain routine for obligations and break. In the long run, the routine tires the workers and makes them want to do something else. While working, at the same time trading is very much permissible. Choose any time that suits best to you. For trading you can opt anytime of your availability within the day or night, no attendance requires for coming in or going out.

Investment for trading is exclusively at your discretion. It is on you to decide how much you are comfortable at to invest in trading. Stock trading never induces you to figure out any amount for investment. You can start with bare minimum amount and can put more funds to diversify your investment.  It allows you select how much to get. Dealing doesn’t figure out how much or how little you should invest. You can select the amount quickly in so far as your cost variety allows.

Trading in a market never need to pay high commission to broker or agent. Earlier, traders were under compulsion of agent or brokers who charged considerable percentage of commission for every single trading executed.  These periods though, with the extensive number of brokers or agent firm available on the net, fair charges are certainly an issue, and those broker or agency firm is much aware of it.

Best investment opportunities

Most of the people exhaust a much part of their life trying to find opportunities to secure their financial status. They devote a lot of time towards their professions of choice as they made savings, pay bills, and eventually plan for pension. If you are a person who is regularly working towards enhancing their financial future, one way to ease this process is to take benefits of investments. With these opportunities you can discover it is likely that enhancing pension benefits, growing your personal benefits, and even finding a new chance for a work out of home career. When with a potential knowledge of the different financial possibilities available for you to get, classify the shares, future, and foreign exchange trading tools.

Stock Trading

Everybody knows stock market is often one of those generally used investment way people’s look to take benefits for enhancing their financial security. The reason for this popularity is found with the expert peoples have with different companies showed in the stock market. While brand understanding is a critical reason for many people on choosing a right shares to add in their portfolio, there are thousands of other possibilities to take benefits of with companies you may not aware or not familiar with. To improve your investing results the sources of shares investment software can help you to check different companies, recognize low and high indexes, and help you in deciding right trading time.

commodity market tips

Right after the prospects that are available with the stock market and use of various tools like trading software, various indexes, reports is the commodity trading. Commodities or futures are the significant means to create more advantages when somebody trying to invest in a more certain market. This market is more foreseeable because many futures depend on seasonal products when it matters to increase or cut its price. Understanding when a particular commodity is available to the market will settles a trader to help in finding out the best time to buy or sell particular investment strategies and the situation when one should refrain from buying and selling of an investment. The use of application (Software tools) designed around futures dealing will properly evaluate different opportunities for you to take benefits or to seek and find out various techniques which may persist.

foreign exchange market

And the third market to venture for enhancing your financial future prevails with the foreign currency market. In this market you are analyzing the different currency rates of various nations and evaluating different international exchange to get benefit. As stated in the earlier para various tools like foreign currency converter, and market reports can bring an important level of information for people to gain from, when it comes to understanding how the currency market works and which international currency should need your focus into. Since you find out how foreign currency exchange play off one another on its value you can find out important opportunities for making profit from an often neglected exchange market.

how to become expert in stock market

There is no age limit to begin investment in a stock market, nor any monetary limit for investment. Whenever people used to talk about successful investor, name of Warren Buffet comes in mind. Reason is obviously his strategy, and not his billion dollar investment. He become billionaire later but first he is a strategist and that made him the idol of stock market.

Building an earnings when the distress range is down below is only possible when you play in the market with your strategy than your huge funds. USA is the place where this enthusiastic people is existing and they spread the message every part of the world.

Speculation is not the right way to invest in a company in the stock market.You must have specific knowledge and fundamentals of the stock market. In a market there are several kinds of investments, you need to know them first and make a decision which suits you best. Its true that all investments style may not within the likings of everybody. Some may like to invest in bonds, some may like mutual funds and others may feel comfortable in investing in stock/share. No need to monitor charts/indexes/pattern etc. They don’t show you any road to earn easy money. It’s your endurance and knowledge that helps you to make some extra money you are looking for.

Don’t react on the media hype. These media news always creates uncertainty among the peoples, and as a consequence they transfer their investment from one company to another company resulting unnecessary loss. So before acting on the media hype be more patient and use your knowledge  to the greater extent, since once switching over from an existing investment to another investment may lead to more investments in that security or even dumb you to irreparable losses. Media always plays the role as a dictator, never offer any right direction to follow. Risk taking is always appreciable, provided it is taken with great care and judiciously.

Stock market creates many idol investors, to name a few Benjamin Graham, Peter lynch, Warren Buffet are the most favored by all. They have used their own unique technique to be successful in the market. Their study at length on the stock market has made them idol to the present generation investors too. Peter Lynch’s focuses on unpopularize companies was a significant strategy. Since these companies were less noticed by the investors their share never moves beyond the purchasing capacity of he investors. As unnoticed by the market watchers and their silent growth  made them more attractive.

Using your personal judgment and knowledge on various companies is essential in selecting  particular companies for the investment is right decision. Most likely you will have several free guidance for investments. Very interesting that all of them are influenced by media and market brokers. Not necessarily they are all biased, but before acting on their views a genuine research is a must. It is always advisable to take risk considering your limited fund flow.  If you give due diligence while selecting equity you will definitely boost your future and will certainly appreciate that stock market is a right place to build a financial carrier.

strategic management and competitive advantage for stock Trading

Competitive advantage is the key to a successful investor. Greatest investor of all times Warren Buffet described competitive advantage as a moat, by which competitors could not violate it to go through a business’s castle. Every company prefers competitive advantage by making a strong brand image, owning costs power, offering niche customer support, or operating in an oligopoly, involving others. In effect, a well benefits company draws and maintains devoted customers. As for instance, Coca Cola is widely absorbed as a result of its powerful product identification. If one were to receive $1 billion dollars from a venture investor, would he be able eliminate Coca Cola’s business in the soft drink market? Absolutely not. In the same way Wal-Mart – not Zellers. To stress then is that the effective investor spends in well advantaged companies because he knows consumer commitment to those companies are like a lover’s addiction; foreseeable and virtually impossible to break. Also, a company that enjoys many competitive advantages most positive however hard to find.

Competitive Advantage of the Oligopoly

Undoubtedly the most secured banks in the world are Canadian banks. The big five – RBC, CIBC, BMO and Scotia bank – endured the weather that was the economic problems from 2007-2009. Canadian banks are protected because its management is highly professional and disciplined. For example, investment strategies are very carefully followed, complex types are mostly prevented, mortgage policies are strict, and most of all, as opposed to U.S Banks, Canadian banks do not employ cowboys with scratchy induce fingertips. Although, Canadian banks charge high fees on accounts, cheque issuing, withdrawals, loans and overdraft, deals, and many more. And yet, in Canada, most depositors hold their money in either one of the five banks, which is clearly the banks’ competitive advantage of the Canadian banks. Indeed, the Canadian banking system is basically an oligopoly, an outstanding truth for investors of a Canadian bank, not so favorable a truth for customers. Wisely, the successful investor hedges the impact of great Canadian bank charges by becoming an investor in one of the “big five”, always reasonable

Competitive Advantage is Relative:

In the Western world McDonald is undoubtedly effective. Most People have found to love Big Macs. However, the successful trader is aware of competitive advantage is relative. To show, McDonald’s have clear competitive benefits in the Western part of the world. On the other hand, this benefit does not convert to the Eastern part of the world. To describe McDonald’s is a far away #2 fast food cafe in China, with only 1100 places compared to KFC more than 2950. The reason for McDonald’s #2 positions in China is its strength in the Western part: beef burgers. So far as Chinese peoples are concern they do not like beef as much as chicken, it’s customize its food for the local China market. Consequently, KFC has obtained tremendous popularity in China to such a level that child can be seen clothed like Colonel Sander’s; he is famous icon to Chinese children. Certainly, the effective trader is aware of that competitive advantage is relative. An achievement is not prearranged, and as an outcome, McDonald’s administration cannot expect to superimpose efficiently its company structure around the world. Fortunately then, the efficient trader is at benefit at Canada, for he can ask those people from nations like China  about the attraction a company likes KFC had in their former birthplace. Tactically, the efficient trader had discussion with customers of a product, taking administrative control with a pinch of salt. Indeed, administration will tell you what you like to listen, whereas, customer will brief their experience on the product.

how to invest money online

In spite of their best intent for investment to earn some extra money, people in the earlier days scare to do so as they presume that same will take lot of complicity. Finding reliable and skilled broker or agent was great concern to them. But now the situation has changed remarkably on introduction of online trading. However, online trading may be filled with “work from home and get rich within few days” slogan are not always what they  say, and mostly all are betting sites; and you need to develop your own strategy  in more rational way. Just be online.

Investment online presents a creative way to do a very conventional deal. The million dollar question is does they truly value it?

Why prefer investment online

Most significant benefits of online investment is that you can be benefited with several information which would not have been possible in the normal procedure, and its right at your convenience. Moreover, many brokers or agents tenders some extra service such as trends, guidelines for the day, real-time prices, great details of data and various analysis. Most of all they give quick implementation of the order, with deals being determined faster than working with a broker in person or action over the telephone.

The greatest benefits, however, is that transaction fee for each order is definitely low, when an order placed online. Moreover, for some advice you need not to pay any charges, and for others it is solutions you can start without any preliminary cost, while any charges expenses are reasonable.

Range of investments

While it rest on the broker/agent, but those who deals with diversify investment products can offer you multiple range of investment products to choose from. Here are some of the possible investment areas from which you can select your preferable one. This can include, but are not limited to, the following:

Equity Shares

Unit trusts and Mutual funds

Government bonds

Corporate bonds

Ensure security

Within the last decades, the background of the online investment has modified amazingly. Where one time processing personal details online was great concern; now it is the standard. Even so, when working with possibly high value transaction, it can still be a little complicated. It is therefore, important to select a reliable on the internet working help which provides a protected place and various stages of protection for your money. This is important.

Fine tune your research

When working on the internet you are on your own. Once you finish the deal, your agent presents the deal for you. There is no immediate interaction and guidance between you and your agent. This places the stress on your to make a big deal on your own. There is no need to see this as a drawback however. Whenever you make any investment dealings it’s important that you completely analysis the market and know what you are doing. It should always be this way. Use the online information to you and you will be okay.

Protect your investment

When working on the internet, it’s also possible to adept a stop-loss order strategy. This is a security measure where you find an automated sell offer if your share price drops below a certain price level. This is perfect to quit any failures spinning out of check. Stock market presently is unpredictable, so it’s important looking into this choice when establishing up.

Always be careful

Investing in share is a serious business, so do not take it casually. Just because you are working with figures on the display does not create it any less real. Surely you can earn profit online through investment in shares, but always continue with a little part of carefulness.

what is a stock market index

Very often you may have heard that Sensex is up by 100 points or down 50 points. Does its  make any sense to cherish by common people? Or to feel dejected? Certainly not.

Now let me explain what is a market index or indices. Market index is a calculative measure of some part of a stock market. A stock market is divided into various sectors for better understanding by the investors, say auto, IT, pharma, banking etc. These sectors further divided according to the size of the company – large, big and small.

Charles Dow the founder of Dow Jones Industrial Index (DJIA) created index in the year 1896 and probably his was the first introduction of index in the stock market. When he created index it confined to top 12 companies of the US and now it has 30 largest companies in the U.S, and that is now  known as DJIA 30 index.

Earlier computing index was not complicated, it was very simple. For instance if an index comprising 12 companies, total capitalization of those companies divided by 12 is the index of the market. This result proves nothing significant, except the average of all the 12 companies.

Presently, after introduction of electronic method it becomes little complicated. In this method, known as price-based calculation, the value or weight of every stock is the total of all the stock value.  This method has some problem when the stock split is done, as it change the value of a company in  the  index. Although there is no fundamental change in the business of a company.

Therefore, major indexes consider a business on capital basis. For example, a company’s market capitalization is $5,000,000 and the total value is 500,000,000 of all the shares in the index, so the company would consider holding 1% of the index. This computation is possible through computer, since this process takes many data for processing.

Now the conclusion is that does the fall or rise in the market does make any impact to the common people? There plays various sentiment in rise and fall of the index. Index is nothing more than a list of stocks, that can be prepare by anybody, for his own purpose. Only reputation of a big company reflects in the index and the people in US, UK and some other European countries where investments in equity is allowed in the 401K pension funds. These countries have suffered more than $2000 billion within three years. We are still lucky that it has not applicable in India.

Inflation is skyrocketing. Price of every commodity has increased beyond the reach of common people. Government has completely failed in all aspect in controlling price of all essential commodities. Crises further deepens on the exorbitant hike in the petrol and gas prices. Unjust economic policies of the government creates added confusion to the common people.

So there are no reasons for celebrating and dejection by the common people on the rise of and fall of the stock market index.

fundamental analysis of stocks

Many investors are in the opinion that ratios are very complicated and found impossible to make any decisions on going through them. In reality it is not as difficult as one think. Even a novice without any knowledge in finance and or business with little effort can get to it. Ratios are one of the most essential tools available to investors for evaluating a company’s potentiality to a new investors. So investors need to have verify the following ratios before jumping into market, so that it works in their favor.

Profit to earning ratio (P/E Ratio)

While purchasing a share/stock of a company it is essential to compare earnings of different companies of a typical sector to determine its fair market value, Earning Per Share (EPS) is a great method to achieve that purpose but this method incapable of throwing any light on how price of a particular share values the by market. So fundamental analysts prefers to use of price to earnings ratio, that is generally known as P/E ratio to determine how much is willing to pay by the market on that share. It is an easy calculation, simply take the current price per share and divide it by EPS. For example if a share is available at $40 per share and its earning per share (EPS) is $5, decides profit to earning ratio (P/E) of $10 (alternately you may compute P/E ratio in the following method:

P/E ratio = Market capitalization

Total earnings

Applying the above calculation you will achieve the same result as stated above. P/E ratio may determine for various periods, like previous year, current year or for the following year. In that case they are termed as TRAILING P/E”, CURRENT P/E, and FORWARD P/E. It is pertinent to mention here that higher the P/E ratio, more demand of that share in the market. Some companies don’t have P/E ratio as they are not earning any profit, this mostly happens when a company is under construction stage.

Profit Earnings and Growth Ratios (PEG)

Is it a share with a higher P/E rate always overpriced?

Not essentially. The share could have a superior P/E ratio as investors are assured that it will have high income development later on and so they bid up the share’s cost now. Luckily, there is another ratio that you can use that needs into account a stock’s estimated income growth: it’s known as the PEG. PEG is determined by getting a stock’s P/E rate and splitting by its predicted amount income development for the next season. So, a share with a P/E rate of 30 predicted to develop its income by 10% the next season would have a PEG of 3. In common, the reduced the PEG, the better the value, because you would be spending less for every unit of income growth.

Dividend Yield

Dividend yield is also an effective tool to measure a company’s performance. It find as under:

DY= Dividend paid x100

share price

If dividend paid on share as $3 on a share price of $60, then a company’s dividend is 5%.It calculated by dividend paid on a current share price. It is also known as dividend yield. Seasoned companies do have higher dividend yield, while small and growth oriented companies either have low dividend yield or no dividend yield, since they offer no dividends.

calculating book value of a company

There is no overall or completely accurate computation of book value.  Anyway, that does not mean that trying to figure out book value is an unattainable task. Quite the opposite, the sensible investor can, simpler than many people imagine, figure out a rational choice of book valuation that they can use to make great and effective investment selections for the long-term goal. Only issue, that book value cannot be determined with overall perfection is because part of the computation must have based on reports with regards to upcoming time.

The book value of a company is the net worth of a company, as arrived out by deducting the total current assets with its current liabilities. This is how much the company would have remaining over in assets if it went out of business right away. As companies are usually predicted to develop and produce more earnings later on, most companies end up being value far more in the market than their book value would show. Because of this, book value is of more interest to value investors than who looks to growth. In order to check book value among companies, one need to find book value per share, that is simply the company’s last every quarterly book value  divided by the number of outstanding shares it has.

Price / Book

Price-to-book ratio (P/B ratio) of a company is recognized by taking the company’s share price available on market and dividing the same with the book value of the company. Such as, if a company’s share now deals at $50 per share in the market and has a book value of $5, then that company has a P/B ratio of $10. The greater the rate, the better the top quality the market is willing to pay for the company above its liquid assets. This ratio is of more focus to value investors over growth investors.

Price / Sales Ratio

Similar to income and book value, you can figure out what the market is pricing a company by assessing its price to its yearly net sales. This computation is known as the price-to-sales ratio (P/S or PSR). To find the P/S divide the company’s total net revenue by the share present price of the previous year (or, by splitting the company’s total market capitalization by its net sales). Which means, if a company whose present share price deals at $2 per share at the market and which had $5 per share in revenue last season will have a P/S of 0.4. Low P/S ratio is usually believed as the better investment strategy since their sales are costing low. Though P/S, like P/E and P/B ratios, are figures that are topic too much presentation and discussion. Sales obviously do not explain the entire purpose: a company may settle a dollar outstanding for 95 cents each, and have large revenue but be really unprofitable. Because of the constraints, P/S ratio is usually used only for loss making companies, as those companies do not have a P/E ratio at all.

Return on Equity (ROE)

In contrast to its book value how much earning a company produces show by return on equity ratio. This ratio is determined by getting a company’s after-tax earnings (after considering dividend on preferred shares but before declaring dividend to equity share holders) and splitting by its book value (which is similar to its total current assets less total of current liabilities). It is used as a typical sign of the company’s efficiency; in other terms, how much earnings it is able to produce has given the assets offered by its shareholders. Every investors typically look for companies with ROE’s that are good and increasing regularly.

capital structure analysis of a company

Capitalization of a company defines long-term capital of a company and is a blend of financial debt and equity contribution by the shareholders. Ratio of equity to debt in a business’s investment framework is an indication of its economical fitness and higher the equity part of the investment in a company as compared to financial debt element that the company is measured as financially strong.

What comprises equity and debt

The equity part of a company is very easily defined as the grouping of investments in various equity, preferred equity and the retained earnings as reserve. Total invested equity value combined with financial debt give support to business’s growth and creates various assets.

Definition of financial debt is also not difficult. Financial debt has the two features in a company:

Working capital debt and debt towards liabilities

Debt liabilities are the amounts that figure out the capital factor of a company. Financial experts and investment research corporates actually differ in factors to be taken to assess the financial debt liability of company. A disciplined interpretation of the financial debt liability means that a stock investor should consider short-term debts, the current outstanding part of long-term debt, long-term financial debt,redeemable preference shares and 2/3 of the principal value of operating leases.

How to check capital structure?

Various percentages are used to figure out the capital structure of a company. The most significant being the Debt ratio = liabilities/ assets; Debt-equity ratio = liabilities/ equity fund and Capitalization ratio = Net total debt/Total capital employed.

Capitalization ratio is regarded as more accurate than other ratios as it analyzes the financial debt part of a business’s investment framework (sum of financial debt and investor funds) with total capital employed in the company. A low rate is an indication of a healthy equity support.***

Investors guide:

Sensible use of borrowed fund in a company helps in increasing the value of financial assets accessible to the company as this would suggest that the organization has earned more from debt after paying interest and charges for the borrowed fund. In fact, there is no model debt-equity ratio, but financial students advised to assess a company as good if the current ratio which is ratio of business’s assets to liabilities is 2:1. Essentially, the most debt/equity structure is determined by various factors like type of industry, its production and its stage of development. An investor should look into a lower capitalization ratio in the market scenario for buying of share of a company.


A starter in the market should consider the statistical factors to assess quality of investment strategies to be able to earn reasonable profits at the beginning. A direct drive into the sea of stock market can bring down the invested fund into huge failures. I had a dreadful experiences while coming into the stock market without much help. I then started reading information books, various stock market reports on investment and found some standard factors as a thumb-rule to buy shares of a company. The achievements in the stock market by use of the factors convinced me to write this article so that new investors/ traders in stock market can make sure achievements from the point of access into share trading.

Share Price And Enterprise Values Multiples In Valuation

An analyst support two techniques to value a share price and business value of many the techniques of comparable and the technique depending on estimated fundamentals. Each of these techniques are applicable to a certain economic reasoning. In this article, we present the technique of comparable and its various characteristics for assessment purpose.

The approach of Comparable

The technique of comparable represents assessment of an asset depending on many of similar (comparable) assets – which is, assessment depending on many regular noticeable to the many of identical assets. The same resources may termed the similar, the comps, or the guide resources (or for share valuation, recommendations companies). For example, growing a standard value of the price-to-earnings (P/E) multiple by checking of a company’s income per share (EPS) provides a quick estimate of the value of the company’s share that can be in contrast to the shares market value. Equally, evaluating a share’s real value compound with proper standard compound should lead the specialist to the same summary on whether the share is comparatively pretty good comparatively underrated  or comparatively overvalued.

The concept behind price multiples is that a share’s cost cannot be analyzed in solitude. Instead, it needs to be analyzed on what it purchases with regards to income, assets, or some other securities. As for instance, a P/E of 10 indicates that it needs 10 units of currency (say $10) to buy one unit of income (say, $1 of income). This measuring of cost per share by value per share also creates possible appraisals among various shares. For example, an investor will pay more for a unit of income for a share with a P/E of 15 than for another share with P/E of 20. Implementing the technique of similar, the forecaster would opine that if the investments are otherwise carefully identical (if they have identical income/returns, risk, and growth possibility, for instance), the share with the P/E of 10 is undervalued comparative to the one with the P/E of other shares.

Here the word relative is essential. A share may be underrated relative to a comparative assets or block of assets, and an expert can therefore expect the assets to outshine the comparative asset or assets on a respective basis. If the comparative asset or assets themselves are not effectively priced, even so, the stock may not be underrated – it may fairly priced or even overpriced (or an overall basis, i.e., in regards to its innate value).

There are various options for the conventional value of multiples have showed up in valuation strategies, such as the multiples of a closely identical individual share and the normal or average value of the several for the market equal group. Economic concept explains that comparable is the rule of one price – and that  two similar assets should sell at the same price. The technique of comparable is perhaps the most commonly used strategy for experts confirming valuation conclusions on  price multiples. Therefore, the use of multiples in valuation is sometimes considered exclusively as a type of relative-valuation strategy.

How Important Is Fundamental Analysis in Stock Market Trading?

Analyzing the various financial data of a company for valuing a share is known as fundamental analysis. Which shows that fundamental analysts only consider those data of a company which is directly related itself (such as its revenue, earning and dividend). Attitudinal data and total market position are not within the consideration of fundamental analysts. Whether a share can be purchased or sold is the only issue of their consideration. Other than company’s business they do not focus on other area.

Commentators of fundamental analysis often argue that the exercise is either unrelated or that it is essentially faulty. One group, made up mostly of supporters of the efficient market hypothesis, opine that fundamental analysis research is an ineffective exercise since a share’s price will always already taken into consideration the company’s financial statement. In other terms, they claim that it is challenging to understand anything new about a business by assessing its basic principles that the market in general does not already know, since everyone has the access to the same financial details. The other significant discussion against fundamental analysis is more realistic than theoretical. These experts argue that fundamental analysis is too unscientific a procedure, and that it’s challenging to get the answers of an organization’s value when there are so many qualitative aspects such as a business management and its aggressive activity.

But, those commentators are in the minimal. Majority of investors and finance experts believe that fundamental analysis is helpful, either singly or along with other methods. For those who think that fundamental analysis is the best way for assessing a company, they will find that a company’s annual financial report (its revenue,balance sheet and cash flow statement) is significant basis for their assessment of company’s present feature. Even if you are not totally convinced on the concept of fundamental analysis, it’s certainly a right choice to know some of the valuation method it explains in other types of share valuation technique also.


Very often it is said that incomes are the “bottom line” when it comes to pricing a company’s share/stock, and in fact fundamental analysts gives much focus on company’s income. Just calculate, earnings are how much surplus (or loss) a company has made after subtracting costs. During a particular interval, all registered companies needed to review their profit/loss on quarterly basis. It’s everybody’s concern that earning is necessary to investors as they provide an indicator of the company’s expected returns and it’s prospective for growth and investment appreciation. That does not actually mean, however, that low or negative income always show a bad investment in share/stock; such as, many new and young company show in their report negative income as they make an effort to develop easily enough to catch a new market, at which factor they will be even more successful than they otherwise might have been. The key is to look at the information showing a company’s earnings on its financial reports and to use the following success percentages to figure out whether the share/stock is a good investment or not.

Earnings Per Share

Evaluating total net income for different companies are usually not a wise decision, as net earning figures do not consider how many shares are outstanding (in other income figures do not consider how many shares of stock are due) in other words, they do not consider how many owners you have to split the income among. EPS is determined by taking a company’s net income and splitting by the number of outstanding shares of stocks the company holds. Say, if a company in its report show $5 million as net earnings for the year before and has 5 million shares of stock outstanding, therefore that company has $1 per share as EPS. There have different EPS like previous year (trailing EPS) current year (current EPS) and for coming year (forward EPS). While calculation of previous year EPS is on actual basis and other two is on estimate basis.

Learn To Invest In A Stock Market

Many factors are there for investing as there are many people, but the main purpose is to generate more assets. Investing should not be puzzled with preserving, which is also important to your financial security. Investing, such as investment strategies in the stock market, is not risk free. A major investment dealings that include purchasing shares are performed by share brokers through stock markets. However, recent development of online trading has made great impact on the share and other securities.

Select your investment goal:

Look at your investment aim. Decide if you are looking for an investment that will offer a stable flow of earnings. If so, you might want to consider a utility stock that has a lengthy record of paying dividend and improving benefits. If you enthusiastic about increasing your prosperity without running into a present tax responsibility, you may wish to consider purchasing share in a company that is serving all of its assets back into growth, since any improve in the value of the actual share will not be subject to taxes until you decide on to sell them.

Your risk taking capacity:

Determine your aversion to danger. If you like to move the cut and the concept of dropping 25 % of your money in a volatile investment doesn’t intimidate you provided that you also have the possibilities of making 25 %, you probably have a high risk tolerance. If you rouse in the night thinking if your account with bank is secure, you have a serious aversion to danger. You will need to keep your investment disposition in mind when choosing share you want to invest.

Your knowledge on stock market:

Determine your level of expertise in choosing your own investments, then open a brokerage account. If you are the kind of person who loves to do your own research, or if you prefer to go with your gut feeling on a particular stock, you may want to consider using an online brokerage firm that only charges a transaction fee. This is the least expensive type of brokerage account. If you want to access help from a seasoned professional on occasion, you might choose to open an account with a discount brokerage firm. They will charge more than online firms, but they give you access to more services. If you need someone to make recommendations and handle all the details for you, you will probably want to work with a full service brokerage firm. These are the most expensive of all brokerage firms.

Choosing a broker:

Select your investments and place the order to your broker. Broker will send the order to the broker working at the floor of a market, where share is listed. Mostly share purchase orders are made in lot which is 100 shares of each class and is known as circular lot. One can buy odd lot, which is any number of shares, but to buy odd lot one needs to pay premium for that shares. You can make transaction at the market, which will perform at whatever price the share is available on the market, or you can fix a bid price that you are willing to buy. In that case order will executes only if someone is ready to sell their share at the cost you have fixed.

Possession of share certificate:

Determine whether you want to take ownership of the share certificate or if you want your shares to be registered in street name. Shares registered in street name indicates it will be registered in the name of broker as the owner. The broker will sign-up you as the owner and will give you proxy form for your voting rights. They will also credit your account by any dividend paid by the company.

How to Value A Company From Stock Market Results

Whenever, we incline to purchase a share or stock we used to focus various newspaper, watch TV channels, various finance related  magazines to find various data from  the stock market results.  These data offers various information relating to a particular stock or group of various stock indices. As you are aware share means a part of the ownership of the company’s earnings, profit, assets and its revenue.

An investor of a company’s share authorize an investor as part owner of the company and to receive all dividends. For the individual investor, a share of ownership entitles you to a share of all dividends. In the event of company is not paying dividend, there are always hope that same will benefit   an investor by way of growth.

The most popular way to value a company’s share/stock is to find the company’s profit on its share price – very popularly know as P/E (profit to earning) ratio. This tool is available in the stock indices or indexes. Find out the price of a share and subtract the same by net annual income of a company.

The most common way of evaluating the worth of a stock is to look at the company’s profits against the stock price – called the price-to-earnings ratio, or P/E. This measure, available in stock tables, takes the share price and divides it by a company’s annual net income. Traditionally, shares have averaged a P/E in the mid-nineteenth, though recently, the market P/E has been greater, often better 20. As a common principle, shares with P/Es greater than the wider market P/E are regarded costly, while shares with a below-market P/E are regarded less costly. It’s important to note: P/Es are not an ideal way of valuing a company’s share. A small company that is increasing quick may have a very great P/E, because it may generate little earnings but has a higher share price depending on aims of better prospect in the future earnings.

Another method of valuing a share is to consider the total revenue earned by the company . To find out this ratio consider the total revenue earned by the company in the earlier 12 months and divide it by the total market capitalization of the share. This ratio is also known as PSR ratio (price to sales ratio). This ratio has limited scope in wider conception, since it only applicable to the similar nature of company in the market.

Next is the cash flow of a company to consider for valuation of a company. Most likely cash flow is the most favored measurement tool that uses by bank and other financial institution to value a private and public organization. In short it is known as EBITDA, and defines earnings of a company before taking into consideration interest, taxes (income tax) depreciation and amortization. This usually arrives out on different time periods say quarterly, yearly or any period best suits to a company.

You may also use an equity-based assessment. Whether that consists of only real assets such as cash, other assets, funds and investors capital contribution or also has non-physical assets such as the abilities of management or recognized value of the product name, share value is everything that an organization has if it were to instantly stop selling their products in the market. Analysis of non-physical assets is where your study and verdict come into act. Does the organization own a instructing cause in a market segment? Is the product itself value a lot? More importantly, is the supervision good? Keep in mind, purchasing a company’s share is basically an approval of present management. Be conscious of who is managing the company and their reputation in the market.

What Are The Causes For Adjusting Your Investment Portfolio?

When an investor put their money into share investment they take great care in slecting prospective company studying various ratios, analysis and reports. Why they do so? Simple answer is, they scared to invest their hard earned mony into some uncertain area in which they have no serious skill. Similar action is also require while selling a share. Old theory of buy and keep for indefinite period over time is no more applicable. In the recent past case of ENRON, SATYAM etc are not an amnesia. In this context investor should also learn art of selling at the right time.

Generally a portfolio created by an investor should consist of highly potential shares. Old theory of keeping the share for life and earn dividend only is outdated. Although it is not fully correct, but an investor should also perceive right time to exit. Because a good share may become bad investment  over some period. Below are the three significant causes when an investor opts out from existing share holding in their portfolio.

Investor’s cause1: Poor Performance

Poor management functionality is the most effective cause ultimately to make the investor to unload their stocks. Here, poor performance shows that the efficiency is decreasing if compares with past performance. For instance, the total revenue or net profit is considerably decreasing. With this poor functionality, it is obvious that the business’s stocks/shares price will drop. You may be aware, that business’s performance is measured by its stock price movement. If the functionality is at the highest level, the stock price will rise for heavy demand by the investors. If functionality is bad, the demand of the stock will fall and as a result stock price will fall and in the process trend to bearish. Therefor, if find that the functionality is poor, the investors will opt for unload their holding and will divert to another stock which gives more profitable return on their investment (ROI) in the current report.

Investor’s cause 2: Increase In Corporate Debt

High increase in financial debts are another cause to investor to unload their shares. Here, the high financial debt shows that the company’s  debts are too big so it is uncertain that the organization will have enough income to repay the debt as well as to perform its operation smoothly. In fact, big economical debt will only create the company running by financial/banking organizations – and certainly by investors. However, this case is not applicable to a big project where infrastructure building takes  long time. However, in other situation when a business borrows huge debt and its cash flow does not reflect sufficient surplus there is every reason to pretend by the investor that company is unable to repay their debt on time and consequently there shall nothing left for the investor. This situation is enough reason to an investor to find some alternative share, where they shall ensure that their funds are on the safest hand. So it is also an important cause to investor for selling their shares and switch over to other shares.

Stocks Investor’s cause 3: Slowing Growth

Every business has a cycle. When the market is overloaded with same product line of the company’s produce. Its difficult situation for a big company to cope with newer companies whose products cost is much reasonable than the big company for various reasons – like high overhead costs, publicity, etc. Very truly, investors never took this situation in the same light of approach, they consider only their return on income, and in this eventuality creates a frustration to the investors, and switch over to other shares which offer higher return on investment. However, the theory of growth not apply in this case.

What Investment Option Should You Choose?

Clearly there was some time when it was uncomplicated to select a means for investment. The economic system was not in problems and people were not clinging onto that last cash until last breadth. However, factors have modified significantly and this has triggered many individuals to take stop before making an investment a penny in any sector. In all equity, we cannot say this is not a wise course of action. Investing can be a dangerous business and with all the present options, it is simple to be trapped in a bad choice. Let us look at a few factors individuals are making an investment in that still seem brilliant.

Gold and Diamonds

No issue what happens later on, gold and precious gems will never fail, with regards to its value and never ending demand. Everybody knows, the market may go up and down a bit, but surely an investment created in either of these factors are secure, offered you know how to strategy the issue, and spend smartly. Certainly, you do not want to take every bit of cash from all your accounts and run out on a gold and precious gems purchasing exercise, but gathering items eventually is very brilliant. The best reason about making an investment in gold jewelery is that there is always a gold customer or someone providing cash for gemstones out there, in situation you find yourself in a touch and select to offer before than ready.

Foreign currency Trading

Investing in this sector is little more complicated than purchasing and investing in jewelery and precious gems. Essentially, unless you are confident yourself well and get the help of a reliable expert, making trying to investing in foreign currency of any type can be a bad decision. However, this has become a very well-known technique of an investment and more investors are getting themselves attracted to it. If this appears to be like something you think you would like to try, study up on it and understand. Select an agent at first to help you create proper and right options, and regardless of what you do, never spend too much at a single deal. Start dealing with small amount, and increase gradually once you experience the result.

Investment in IPO

Of all the investment strategies, this can be the hardest. Many of us started ourselves in the beginning 2000’s because we did not have the foresight to buy The apple company or other technical sectors we never realized would become as well-known as they are now. With share investing as an investment, you select depending on what you think a company can make. Considering that this is difficult to estimate, you can either simply guess or create a hefty share investment. Sometime small emerging company can do beyond our expectation, what did Reliance Industries in the early 80s. So before investing in this sector do the ground work properly.

Individual Retirement Account Or 401(K) Must Have Contingent Beneficiaries

One of the biggest paycheck one ever had from their employer is their repayment of retirement plan or 401(k). These pension benefits record could be the biggest advantage to you and your household members, but they could also be the most significant tax shock too. Effectively headings known as beneficiary designations can dual, multiple or even multiply by 4 the value of your IRA or 401(k) to you and your recipients. By comparison, poorly headings designations can charge you up to 60% of the savings value in taxation and fines.

One of the most significant factors to comprehend about your 401(k) or IRA is the known as beneficiary designations and how essential it is to do this properly. For example, let’s say a man has his spouse detailed as the main known as beneficiary. When the spouse dies, total amount of savings of that IRA will go to his spouse. Generally, the IRA will now be headings in the spouse’s name, and she will hold enjoys that tax-deferred growth for if she is in existence.

Where the issue possibly comes in is how the dependent recipients are known as, or not mentioned as such. If kids are known as dependent recipients what then happens is if the spouse dies and the mother and father desired the IRA to go 50-50 to the kids, each one would can have their part named into a IRA in his or her name. They could go ahead that tax deferral for the course of their life-time as well, if they want it. They might also distribute the fund between themselves, which would cause taxation and fines and is not the preferred decision. The best option is to continue with the IRA as get benefit for tax deferral.

If no contingent recipients are specifically mentioned, then the money will goes the estate. Once the estate has gone through, we know that the IRA expected to transfer in the name of two kids. The estate will transfer the money to children in the ratio of 50-50, but when they get it, they are likely to have to pay tax on that amount instantly. They don’t have the capability or the option at that time have their name in the IRA account. Therefore it’s essential to have a beneficiary name has known as on your IRA, then your children need not to pay any tax on it, when they gradually get the cash.

What’s more, that tax amount can be especially high; based on which tax segment they are in, as great as 50 % or even higher!  If they’re getting that cash, then it’s subject to taxation and not tax-deferred. First, they’re under age of 59 1/2 and a  50 percent, they’re going to pay a pre-59 and a 50 percent tax charge that’s charged by the IRS (Internal Earnings Service). Secondly, the cash they’re getting is going to be subject to taxation at their common tax slab, whatever that is. If its huge sum, it could toss them into a greater tax slab. If they’re in the 15 % tax slab normally, and they acquire an extra $2,00000, that could punch them all the way up to the top tax slab, which is 38-39 %. Several that with the 10 % charge on top, and we’re getting near 50 % of the value has gone in taxation and fines.

That’s a large tax hit and one that is completely needless, but people don’t recognize the value of labeling beneficiary recipients. Amazingly, about 50 % of the people don’t have contingents known as on their 401(k) or IRA records. They just believe it’ll gradually do itself out and the cash will gets to their children. In one perception, they’re right. Eventually the cash will outflow down to them. The issue is that if it trickles down to them the incorrect way, those children are going to be intensely subject to taxation on it compared to having that outflow down the right way, where all that earning are tax-deferred to them.

The euro fell on the background of last comments of U.S. officials

Asian and European trading sessions:

Euro: The EUR / USD pair rose to $ 1.3245 during the Asian session. The euro currency continued its growth against almost all its rivals on the background publication of data on consumer confidence in France. National Statistics Office Insee informed that the confidence showed the first monthly increase since May 2012 unexpectedly improving this month to the level 86 from 84 in November, while expectations of economists were on unchanged values of the indicator. Strengthening of the single currency was also supported by the release of a report on business confidence in Italy, which has also increased during December. The demand for assets in the region has increased and the EUR / USD pair grew to $ 1.3284 during the European session.

U.S. Dollar: The dollar index fell 0.35% to 79.47 during the European session.

British Pound: The GBP / USD pair during the Asian session traded in the range of $ 1.6120-45. The pound went up against the U.S. dollar, after a report showed that the number of approved applications for mortgages for purchasing homes in the UK rose last month rose to the level of 33,634 from 33,128 thus showing the highest value since January 2012. The GBP / USD pair rose to $ 1.6201 during the European session.

Japanese Yen: The yen fell into new lows against almost all traded currencies ahead of tomorrow’s publication of data of the consumer price index excluding fresh food in Japan in November. Accordingly the forecast of economists it may show the drop of the index by 0.1%. The USD / JPY pair rose to Y85.85 during the European session.
American trading session:

U.S. Dollar: The speech of Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, in which he called the Republican Party of U.S. to offer their ideas for the prevention of the “fiscal cliff” problem, helped the dollar to erase losses against the euro and many other its rivals. Mr. Reid also expressed some pessimism about the likelihood of achieving such an agreement on the still exist problem.

Euro: The euro fell against the dollar and other major currencies on the background of last comments of U.S. officials who pointed out about the lower probability of reaching an agreement on the so-called “fiscal cliff” problem.

Gold: The February futures price of gold rose to 1666.13 dollars per ounce on COMEX today after the U.S. Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid mentioned that the budget debate will probably not be resolved until January 1, boosting demand for the metal as a safe haven asset.

Oil: The January price of WTI type of crude oil fell to 90.51 dollars a barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange after reaching the level of the $91.41 on the previous session. The futures closed, however, at the level of $91.10 on the background of newly emerged concerns about stability in the Middle East.

Gold and silver daily review (December 28, 2012)


Spot gold prices gained 0.2 percent higher due to safe haven buying by the market participants after US Senate majority leader Harry Reid said that the fiscal cliff issue of the nation might not be resolved before January 1st 2012. Strength in the DX in the early part of the trade however, capped gains.

The yellow metal touched an intra-day high of $ 1,665.15/oz and closed at $ 1,663.29 per ounce on Thursday. On the MCX, Gold February contract ended 0.4 percent higher on account of depreciation in the Indian rupee and traced firmness in the spot gold prices. Gold prices on the MCX closed at Rs. 30,823/10 gms on Thursday after touching a high of Rs. 30849 / 10gms.

Spot silver prices declined 0.6 percent taking cues from trend in the spot gold prices along with strength in the base metals pack. Strength in the DX in the early part of the trade however capped gains.

The white metal touched an intra-day high of $ 30.46/oz and closed at $ 30.2 per oz on Thursday. In the Indian markets, MCX silver prices gained 1.2 percent and closed at Rs. 58,175/kg on Thursday and touched an intra-day high of Rs. 58,444 / kg. Depreciation in the Indian rupee acted as a supportive factor for the silver prices on MCX.

In the intra-day, we expect gold prices to remain weak due to selling by the market participants on the back of optimism that the US law makers might be able to avert the fiscal cliff issue. This is likely to reduce the safe haven buying of the yellow metal. Weakness in the DX is however expected to cushion fall in the gold prices. Silver prices are however, expected to trade firm taking cues from strength in the industrial metals. In the domestic markets however, appreciation in the Rupee will exert downside pressure on the gold prices on MCX.

Oil and natural gas daily review (December 28, 2012)

Crude Oil

Nymex crude oil prices gained 0.2 percent in yesterday’s trading session on the back of expectations that US lawmakers will not be able to reach a deal in order to avert the fiscal crisis. However, decline in the US consumer confidence acted as a bearish factor for the crude oil prices.

Weakness in the DX coupled with decline in unemployment claims supported an upside in the crude prices. Oil prices touched an intra-day high of $91.44/bbl and closed at $90.87/bbl in yesterday’s trading session.

On the domestic bourses, prices gained by 0.2 percent as a result of depreciation in the Indian Rupee and closed at Rs.4,992/bbl after touching an intra-day high of Rs.5,040/bbl on Thursday.
API Inventories Data

As per the American Petroleum Institute (API) report last night, US crude oil inventories declined as expected by 1.17 million barrels to 370.5 million barrels for the week ending on 21st December 2012. Gasoline inventories rose around 2.4 million barrels to 215.84 million barrels and whereas distillate inventories gained by 2.9 million barrels to 118.79 million barrels for the same week.
EIA Inventories Forecast

The US Energy Department (EIA) is scheduled to release its weekly inventories report today at 9:30pm IST and US crude oil inventories is expected to decline by 1.9 million barrels for the week ending on 21st December 2012. Gasoline stocks are expected to gain by 0.5 million barrels whereas distillate inventories are expected to drop by 0.9 million barrels for the same period.

In the intra-day we expect crude oil prices to remain firm on expectation that the US law makers might be able to resolve the lingering fiscal cliff issue before December 31st 2012. This is expected to reduce worries of the US economy going back into recession. Weakness in the DX along with expectation of decline in the crude oil inventories to be released in the later part of the day is likely to support an upside in the crude oil prices. In the domestic market appreciation in the rupee is likely to cap gains in the crude oil prices on MCX.

Industrial metals (copper, aluminium, nickel, etc.) daily review (December 28, 2012)

The base metals pack traded on a positive note taking cues from the Chinese, the US economic data and expectations on the resolution of the US fiscal cliff issue. MCX base metals prices, tracking the international prices also increased. Further, deprecation in the rupee acted as a supportive factor for the rise in base metal prices.

Copper price s gained 1.3 percent on Thursday. Rise in copper prices was due to series of positive Chinese economic data in the previous weeks and p rofits of industrial companies in the China surging by 22.8 percent in November 2012. Strength in the DX coupled with rise in the LME inventories capped gains in the yesterday’s session.

Copper inventories on LME increased by 0.2 percent on Thursday and stood at 3,18000 tonnes as against 3,17,350 tonnes on 24th December 2012.

Prices of Cop per on LME touched an intra-day high of $7,945.25 per tonne and closed at $ 7,917.75/tonne on Thursday. In the domestic markets MCX copper gained 0.4 percent tracing firmness in the international prices and depreciation in the Indian rupee. In the domestic markets prices of Copper on MCX touched an intra-day high of Rs. 441.4 per kg and closed at Rs. 440.8 per kg on Thursday.

From the intraday perspective, the base metals are expected to trade upwards on the back of positive data from the US and China and the optimism that the US fiscal cliff issue might be resolved. However, weak DX is likely to add to the gains in the base metals pack. In the domestic markets, appreciation in the Indian rupee will cap gains in the metal prices on MCX.

European stock market, economy and companies update (December 27, 2012)


Indices: FTSE 100 +0.20% at 5965, DAX +0.24% at 7654, CAC-40 +0.60% at 3676, IBEX-35 -0.10% at 8293, FTSE MIB +0.50% at 16,412, SMI -0.20% at 6877, S&P 500 Futures +0.10% at 1414.50

- Following the Christmas break, European equity indices are trading mixed. The French CAC-40 and Italian FTSE MIB have outperformed, while the Swiss SMI index has lagged. The FTSE 100 and DAX indices are trading within reach of fresh 2012 highs. European banks are mostly higher and outperformers include Deutsche Bank, Intesa and RBS. Resource-related firms have tracked the recent gains in oil prices. In terms of the US fiscal cliff talks, lawmakers are due to return to Washington on Thursday, following the holiday break. US officials have until Dec 31st in order to reach an agreement to avoid certain automatic tax increases and spending cuts. Also, the US government is expected to reach its debt ceiling on the same date.

- Germany movers [BMW +0.70% (CEO commented on 2012 sales outlook), Rheinmetall +0.60% (named new CEO and CFO)]
- Spain movers [Bankia -11% (Spain regulators confirmed the firm's negative valuation, approved capital raise)]
- Switzerland movers [Clariant +4% (asset sale)]

- IMF’s Lagarde: France should worry about the credibility of its efforts on fiscal reforms, rather on if it would meet EU’s budget deficit target of 3% of GDP
- ECB’s Coene: ESM could serve as European bank resolution fund
- Spain Autonomous Regions to call for looser deficit targets with Catalonia to lead the regions in asking the central govt to ease 2013 deficit targets of 0.7% vs 1.5% y/y. The request to be made at regular meeting with Budget Min Montoro in Jan
- Spain said to be planning decree to prevent early retirement which would make it harder and more expensive for companies to use early retirement . Govt might delay early retirement age to 63 and the decree would complement pension reform passed by prior govt which comes into effect on Jan 1st 2013 and gradually raises retirement age to 67
- France Fin Min Moscovici penned an Op Ed articile in the German press which reiterated that the country has duty to reverse years of budget deficits as public debt had risen to unacceptable €1.7T. He reiterated 2013 deficit target of 3% and that France planned to start lowering its debt from 2014 although the plan was ambitious.
- Japan Govt Advisor Hamada: BoJ foreign bond buying could be a policy option and the central bank should buy more long dated JGBs and risk assets. He reiterated that a desirable inflation target of 2-3% and BoJ should pursue unlimited monetary easing. Must change BoJ law that guarantees its independence to hold BoJ accountable for its policy objectives.
- Japan Ministry of Finance (MOF) expanded its special forex monitoring program by three months until end of March 2013 (**Note: program was introduced in Aug 2011 when the BoJ performed a second act of solo FX to help curb JPY currency appreciation)

- Supportive equity markets continued to provide backdrop for softer USD and JPY currencies into thin year-end conditions. The USD/JPY hit its highest level in over 2-years when it tested 85.87 and EUR/JPY cross tested fresh 16-month highs of 113.85. The new Japanese Govt maintained its rhetoric on seeking a weaker yen. The Japan Chamber of Commerce head expressed his desire to see USD/JPY stabilize between the ¥85-90 level but cautioned that any rise to ¥110-120 level was its limit from importers’ stance. Some vague chatter circulated that Japan might impose a 90 floor in pair (highly doubtful since BOJ had preached to China in the past on the virtue of floating, market driven rate)
- The EUR/USD was higher by almost 50pips as it traded near 132.50.

Political/ In the Papers:
-(DE) German Econ Min Roesler: Planning the sale of state holdings by 2016 in order to reach balanced budget – German press
-(DE) IMF’s Lagarde: EMU growth to accelerate in 2013; warns against overly ambitious fiscal consolidation in Germany – Germany press
-(CY) Russia Deputy Fin Min Storchak: No plan to grant €5B Cyprus loan request, too much risk for one creditor- financial press
-(NL) Netherlands Fin Min Dijsselbloem said to be opposed to relaxing new mortgage rules – US financial press; Said may change discussion on EU budget limit of 3%; not in Dutch government’s interest to be the first to start talks on budget limit.
-(US) Treasury Sec Geithner confirms will conduct additional measures to avoid reaching the debt ceiling limit, as has been customary in prior debt ceiling impasses; Technically will hit debt limit on Dec 31, but will take extraordinary measures to avoid hitting the limit as it has in the past; Measures will create $200B in headroom
-(US) Moody’s: highly likely that US will eventually act to raise the debt limit; direction of US bond ratings most likely to be determined by the outcome of budget negotiations; if there is no clear path on the fiscal outlook and debt trajectory in 2013, the US sovereign rating will be downgraded.
-(US) China rating agency Dagong Global place US sovereign rating on Negative watch citing lack of political consensus on how to tackle debt problem over the long term
-(US) Republican aide: Republican House caucus expected to hold conf call Thursday to discuss fiscal cliff – financial press
-(US) Senate Majority Leader Reid’s (D-NV) reiterates call for the House to act on the Senate bill extending middle class tax cuts in order to avoid fiscal cliff effects. The Senate bill is the only one that can become law.
- (US) House Speaker Boehner’s office: The Senate should act on House passed budget bills; Senate must act first on House proposals, then House will consider Senate bill revisions.

***Looking Ahead***
***All times listed for economic events are denominated in Eastern Standard Time (Add 5 hours for GMT equivalent)
- (BR) Brazil Nov Central Govt Budget (BRL): No est v 9.9B prior
- (RU) Russia Gold & Forex Reserve w/e Dec 21st: No est v $528.8B prior
- 06:30 (US) Daily Libor fixing
- 08:30 (US) Initial Jobless Claims: 360Ke v 361K prior; Continuing Claims: 3.20Me v 3.125M prior
- 09:00 (MX) Mexico Nov Preliminary Trade Balance: No est v -$1.7B prior
- 09:30 (EU) ECB calls for bids in 6-Day Main Refinancing Tender
- 10:00 (US) Dec Consumer Confidence: 70.0e v 73.7 prior
- 10:00 (US) Nov New Home Sales: 379Ke v 368K prior
- 11:00 (IC) Iceland Central Bank Minutes
- 11:00 (US) Fed to purchase $4.25-5.25B in Notes
- 12:00 (FR) France Nov Net Change Jobseekers: +25.0Ke v +45.4K prior; Total Jobseekers: No est v 3.103M prior
- 14:00 (AR) Argentina Nov Supermarket Sales Y/Y: No est v 15.5% prior; Shop Center Sales Y/Y: No est v 12.6% prior
- 16:30 (US) Weekly API U.S. Crude Oil Inventories
- 18:30 (JP) Japan Nov Jobless Rate: 4.2%e v 4.2% prior
- 18:30 (JP) Japan Nov National CPI: -0.2%e v -0.4% prior; CPI Ex Food&EnergY/Y: -0.5%e v -0.5% prior
- 18:50 (JP) Japan Nov Industrial Production M/M: -0.5%e v +1.6% prior; Y/Y: -4.6%e v -4.5% prior
Fixed Income:
- Treasury Sec Geithner confirms will conduct additional measures to avoid reaching the debt ceiling limit (**Note: Technically will hit debt limit on Dec 31st)
- Moody’s: highly likely that US will eventually act to raise the debt limit; direction of US bond ratings most likely to be determined by the outcome of budget negotiations
- House GOP Leaders: Senate must act first on Fiscal Cliff
- President Obama back in Washington after cutting his Hawaii vacation short
- South Korea Finance Ministry cuts 2012 and 2013 GDP growth outlook
- Italy’s Bersani Open to more budget control by EU
- Japan Chief Cabinet Sec Suga: Forex movement is a reversal of past on-sided yen appreciation; yen weakens to 2+year low against USD on continued hope for more Japanese policy stimulus
- China 2013 Budget deficit to widen as the country moves to stimulate the economy and push ahead with structural economic reforms
- ECB daily borrowings hit highest level of 2012 (Trend very similar to year-ago levels)
- ECB’s Coene: Still have room on rates
- Italian auctions results mixed; yields higher on 6-month bills but lower on 2-year CTZ
- Italian and France confidence data slightly exceeds expectations
- Supportive equity markets provide backdrop for softer USD and JPY currencies

***Economic Data***
- (EU) ECB: €16.3B borrowed in overnight loan facility (highest amount of 2012) vs. €13.9B prior; €221.6B parked in deposit facility vs. €229.4B prior
- (CN) China Sept Outstanding Foreign Debt $770.8B v $785.2B in June
- (FI) Finland Dec Consumer Confidence: 3.5 v 1.0 prior; Business Confidence: -15 v -13 prior
- (CH) Swiss Nov UBS Consumption Indicator: 1.23 v 1.30 prior
- (FR) France Dec Consumer Confidence: 86 v 84e
- (FR) France Nov Producer Prices M/M: -0.5% v -0.2%e; Y/Y: 1.9% v 2.3%e
- (ES) Spain Oct Mortgages-Capital Loaned Y/Y: -21.2% v -35.3% prior; Mortgages on Houses Y/Y: -14.4% v -32.2% prior
- (CZ) Czech Dec Business Confidence: 1.6 v 0.3 prior; Consumer Confidence: -26.0 v -26.3 prior; Composite: -3.9 v -5.0 prior
- (TW) Taiwan Nov Leading Index M/M: 0.8% v 0.7% prior; Coincident Index M/M: 0.4% v 0.5% prior
- (HK) Hong Kong Nov Trade Balance (HKD): -44.1B v -43.2Be; Exports Y/Y: 10.5% v 3.3%e; Imports Y/Y: 9.0% v 2.6%e
- (IT) Italy Dec Business Confidence: 88.9 v 88.8e; Economic Sentiment: 75.4 v 76.5 prior
- (UK) Nov BBA Loans for House Purchase: 33.6K v 34.5Ke
- (BR) Brazil Dec FGV Inflation IGP-M M/M: 0.7% v 0.8%e; Y/Y: 7.8% v 7.9%e

Fixed Income:
- (IT) Italy Debt Agency (Tesoro) sold €8.5B vs. €8.5B indicated in 6-month Bills; Avg Yield 0.949% v 0.919% prior; Bid-to-cover:1.57 x v 1.65x prior
- (IT) Italy Debt Agency (Tesoro) sold €3.25B vs. €3.25B indicated in Zero Coupon Sept 2014 CTZ; Avg Yield 1.884% v 1.923% prior; Bid-to-cover: 1.69x v 1.50x prior
- (HU) Hungary Debt Agency (AKK) sold HUF vs. HUF indicated in 3-Month Bills; Avg Yield % v 5.63% prior; Bid-to-cover: x v 2.31x prior

US stock market, economy and companies update (December 28, 2012)

- Stocks traded lower on continued worries about the US going over the fiscal cliff despite an eleventh hour effort to reach a short term compromise deal in Washington. Congressional leaders are headed to the White House at 3pmET today to hear the President’s pitch for a short term “scaled down” deal that would reportedly extend for 60-90 days the Bush tax cuts for all but the wealthiest earners ($400K+), and delay or replace most of the sequester automatic cuts, as well as dealing with pressing AMT tax and unemployment insurance issues. Its unclear yet if Congressional leaders will go along with this proposal to “kick the can” one more time, and no post meeting press conferences have been scheduled yet.

- There was little reaction to any of the morning’s positive data points. The December Chicago Purchasing Manager’s Index came in a little better than expected at 51.6 v 51e, though the employment component fell to a three year low. US federal mediators also announced a tentative deal to avert a strike at 14 major ports along the east coast and Gulf of Mexico that had threatened to grind shipping to a halt on the eastern seaboard.

- Barnes and Noble share were higher in the pre-market after disclosing an $89M investment by publisher Pearson in BKS’ NOOK unit, putting a $1.8B value on NOOK’s operations. Barnes and Noble undercut the announcement by slipping some negative news out in a filing, noting expectations that holiday sales trends were below prior projections, including in the NOOK segment. Shares are still trading up 6%.

Fixed Income:
- ECB drains €197.6B vs. €208.5B target in 6-day Term Deposit Tender to offset Govt Bond Purchases (First time in over a year it did not fully sterilize its SMP purchases)


**Looking Ahead***
All times listed for economic events are denominated in Eastern Standard Time (Add 5 hours for GMT equivalent)
- 11:00 (US) Weekly DOE U.S. Crude Oil Inventories
- 11:00 (CO) Colombia Nov Urban Unemployment Rate: 10.0%e v 10.2% prior; National Unemployment Rate: No est v 8.9% prior
- 11:00 (US) Fed to Purchase $4.25-5.25B in Notes
- 14:00 (AR) Argentina Oct Economic Activity Index M/M: No est v 0.3% prior; Y/Y: 2.0%e v 0.1% prior
- 14:00 (AR) Argentina Nov Construction Activity M/M: No est v -0.3% prior; Y/Y: No est v -0.9% prior
- 15:00 (US) Congressional leaders to meet with President Obama at White House
- 15:30 (MX) Mexico Nov YTD Budget Balance (MXN): No est v -163.8B prior

- (US) House of Representatives reconvenes
**Economic Data***
- (IE) Ireland Nov Property Prices M/M: +1.1% v -0.6% prior; Y/Y: -5.7% v -8.1% prior
- (BR) Brazil Nov Central Govt Budget (BRL): -4.3B v +2.1Be
- (IN) India Forex Reserves w/e Dec 21st: $296.5B v $296.6B prior
- (CL) Chile Nov Unemployment Rate: 6.2% v 6.6%e
- (CL) Chile Nov Total Copper Production: 478.6K v 476.2K prior
- (CL) Chile Nov Retail Sales Y/Y:10.7% v 7.2%e
- (CL) Chile Nov Manufacturing Index: 0.8% v 2.7%e
- (ZA) South Africa Nov Trade Balance (ZAR):-7.9B v -17.6Be
- (BR) Brazil Nov Primary Budget Balance (BRL): -5.5B v +5.5Be; Nominal Budget Balance: -21.8B v -6.0Be; Net Debt % GDP: 35.0% v 35.0%e
- 09:45 (US) Dec Chicago Purchasing Manager: 51.0e v 50.4 prior
- 10:00 (US) Nov Pending Home Sales M/M: 1.0%e v 5.2% prior; Y/Y: 12.2%e v 18.0% prior
- 10:30 (US) Weekly EIA Natural Gas Inventories

Indian stock market daily closing report (December 28, 2012)

Indian markets ended up 0.65% today. The markets surged in last hour of trading lead by the Oil & Gas stocks. Buying interest was observed in oil & gas stocks tracking increased expectation from the government for increasing diesel and kerosene prices by Rs 10 per litre in phases.

The breadth of the market was positive in today’s trade.

European stock market, economy and companies update (December 28, 2012)


FTSE 100 -0.05% at 5,952, DAX -0.30% at 7,631, CAC-40 -0.80% at 3,646, IBEX-35 -1.4% at 8,163, FTSE MIB -0.40% at 16,340, SMI -0.10% at 6,858, S&P 500 Futures -0.20% at 1,409

- Following the mixed open, European equity markets are mostly lower, led by weakness in the Spanish IBEX-35 index. Markets continue to focus on the developments related to the US budget talks. Later today, US President Obama is expected to meet with various Congressional leaders at around 3:00 p.m. EST. Also, US House Republicans are due to resume their legislative session on Sunday, Dec 30th. In terms of specific sectors, banks are mostly lower, led by BBVA, BNP, Commerzbank and Santander. Resources related firms have largely tracked the gains in copper and oil prices.

-Germany movers [Porsche +6% (favorable court ruling; Prosieben -1% (fined by Germany's cartel office)]
- UK movers [Lonmin -1% (CEO to resign)]
- Italy movers [Enel -0.90% (concerns regarding 2013 dividend)]
- Spain movers [Bankia -24% (to be removed from the IBEX-35 index)]

- German Bundestag (lower house) President Lammert (CDU) stated that Greece aid was within Parliament’s framework and the approval of €49.1B aid tranche was correct
- Bank of Spain monthly bulletin reiterated its view that Q4 economic activity contracted
- Japan Fin Min Aso stated that he sought an agreement with BoJ on inflation target before next meeting in Jan. He also noted that the US should seek a strong dollar but that Japan was not seeking a drastic decline in the JPY currency. Only Japan had abided by G20 accord regarding competitive currency devaluation. Other country’s had no right to lecture Japan on currency policy
- Japan Econ Min Amari stated that it was in the nation’s paramount interest in choosing next BOJ governor. It was important for govt and Central bank to share strong will to reach 2% inflation target and for market to understand that. Japan economy must be on upswing to consider sales tax implementation
- Japan Vice Fin Min Yamaguchi stated that Fin Min Aso would not likely attend BOJ policy meetings
- China Central Bank (PBoC) Q4 Monetary Policy Committee Meeting reiterated its prudent monetary policy outlook and would use various policy tools to guide steady growth in credit and social financing/ It did see more positive factors in economy in Q4 and the current price situation was basically stable. The global economy remained weak and filled with uncertainty. It would also push ahead with exchange rate reform while holding Yuan rate basically steady
- Philippines Central Bank noted that challenges in global economy remained and domestic economy must address the fallout. Needed to tackle increased market volatility arising from US fiscal cliff negotiations and Euro Zone debt crisis
- Thailand Central Bank stated that its 2013 GDP was seen above 4.6% prior forecast due to lower external uncertainties. The euro-zone debt crisis would not worsen but the US fiscal cliff remained an area of concern. It would closely monitor movement of capital flows as Japan might undertake further monetary policy easing
- Japan Trade Min Motegi noted that it needed to rethink nuclear reactor lifetime limit and might let reactors operate for more than 40 years. There would be no restarts of nuclear power plants until after new safety standards for nuclear plants were established this summer. Economy would never be affected by possible energy supply constraints

- The market initially tried to remain optimistic on the US. fiscal cliff front amid reports that Obama would host a meeting with Reid, McConnell, Boehner and Pelosi in a bid to reach a compromise before the debt ceiling deadline. However, some concerns that the US sovereign rating would be downgraded provided a headwind and helped the USD and JPY reverse initial weakness. Dealers also noted that general book squaring in thin end of year liquidity played a role in the price action.
- The JPY currency reversed its earlier losses against the major pairs during the session. During Asia a plethora of Japanese data offered justification for more policy easing after industrial production and manufacturing weakness, while deflationary headwinds also remained. Comments from Fin Min Aso that Japan was not seeking a drastic decline in the JPY currency was one factor in aiding its reversal.
- The EUR/USD was off by over 60 pips ahead of the NY morning and trading around the 1.3175 area.

Political/ In the Papers:
- (DE) Germany’s 2014 budget would be balanced if new borrowings are below €7B vs currently planned €13B – German Press; Suggests the government could propose savings measures equal to a single-digit billion euro amount for 2014. (Note: On yesterday’s session, Germany’s Fin Min Schaeuble said that there was no post election austerity planned)
- (GR) Greece Central Bank: €50B in aid was enough to recapitalize the banking sector in Greece; four largest banks required €27.5B in capital
- (ES) Telegraph’s Ambrose Evans-Pritchard says Spain’s property market remains a downside risk for the country’s economy; Questions the Spanish government’s belief that the housing market has already hit a bottom.
- (US) House of Reps to resume legislative session at 18:30ET on Sunday, Dec 30 – GOP sources citing ongoing caucus conf call
- House Republicans informed that they may need to remain in session through to Thursday, January 3, the final day of the 112th Congress.
- House Speak Boehner also said to have indicated that the Feb/March timeframe, when the debt ceiling expires, is the true deadline for a fiscal deal.
- (US) Senate Majority Leader Reid (D-NV): It is looking like the US will go over the fiscal cliff and tax rates will go up starting Jan 1 unless Congress acts immediately
- (US) Congressional leaders to meet with Obama at White House on Friday

***Looking Ahead***
***All times listed for economic events are denominated in Eastern Standard Time (Add 5 hours for GMT equivalent)
- 06:00 (IE) Ireland Nov Property Prices M/M: No est v -0.6% prior; Y/Y: No est v -8.1% prior
- 06:30 (BR) Brazil Nov Central Govt Budget (BRL): 2.1Be v 9.9B prior
- 06:30 (IN) Weekly India Forex Reserves
- 06:30 (US) Daily Libor fixing
- 07:00 (CL) Chile Nov Unemployment Rate: 6.6%e v 6.6% prior
- 07:00 (CL) Chile Nov Total Copper Production: No est v 476.2K prior
- 07:00 (CL) Chile Nov Retail Sales Y/Y: 7.2%e v 6.6% prior
- 07:00 (CL) Chile Nov Manufacturing Index: 2.7%e v 9.1% prior
- 07:00 (ZA) South Africa Nov Trade Balance (ZAR): -17.6Be v -21.2B prior
- 07:30 (BR) Brazil Nov Primary Budget Balance (BRL): 5.5Be v 12.4B prior; Nominal Budget Balance: -6.0Be v -4.6B prior; Net Debt % GDP: 35.0%e v 35.2% prior
- 09:45 (US) Dec Chicago Purchasing Manager: 51.0e v 50.4 prior
- 10:00 (US) Nov Pending Home Sales M/M: 1.0%e v 5.2% prior; Y/Y: 12.2%e v 18.0% prior
- 10:30 (US) Weekly EIA Natural Gas Inventories
- 11:00 (US) Weekly DOE U.S. Crude Oil Inventories
- 11:00 (CO) Colombia Nov Urban Unemployment Rate: 10.0%e v 10.2% prior; National Unemployment Rate: No est v 8.9% prior
- 11:00 (US) Fed to Purchase $4.25-5.25B in Notes
- 14:00 (AR) Argentina Oct Economic Activity Index M/M: No est v 0.3% prior; Y/Y: 2.0%e v 0.1% prior
- 14:00 (AR) Argentina Nov Construction Activity M/M: No est v -0.3% prior; Y/Y: No est v -0.9% prior
- 15:00 (US) Congressional leaders to meet with President Obama at White House
- 15:30 (MX) Mexico Nov YTD Budget Balance (MXN): No est v -163.8B prior
- Nikkei225 Index ends 2012 +23% at 10,395 with its best annual performance since 2005
- Last-Ditch Fiscal Cliff Talks Planned; House Returning Sunday as Cliff Deadline Looms
- Concerns that the US sovereign rating would be downgraded with the fiscal cliff impasse and hampering risk appetite
- France Q3 Final GDP revised lower
- Bank of Spain (BOS) Monthly Economic Bulletin Q4 economic activity contracted
- Japan Fin Min: not seeking a drastic decline in the JPY currency
- Italy sells upper end of range in 5-year and 10-year bond sale; borrowing costs rise slightly from two-year lows

***Economic Data***
- (RU) Russia Narrow Money Supply w/e Dec 24th (RUB): No est v 7.37T prior
- (FI) Finland Nov Preliminary Retail Sales Volume Y/Y: +1.7% v -0.1% prior
- (HU) Hungary Q3 Current Account: €780M v €628Me
- (TH) Thailand Nov Current Account: $392M v $240Me; Total Trade Account Balance: +$630M v -$146M prior; Overall Trade Balance: $1.2B v -$1.3B prior
- (TH) Thailand Nov Business Sentiment Index: 52.0 v 52.1 prior
- (FR) France Q3 Final Gross Domestic Product Q/Q: 0.1% v 0.2%e; Y/Y: 0.0% v 0.1%e
- (FR) France Nov Consumer Spending M/M: 0.2% v 0.0%e; Y/Y: -0.2% v -0.6%e
- (ES) Spain Nov Adjusted Real Retail Sales Y/Y: -7.8% v -10.3%e; Real Retail Sales Y/Y: -7.8% v -8.4% prior
- (TR) Turkey Nov Trade Balance: -$7.2B v -$6.0Be
- (EU) ECB: €16.0B borrowed in overnight loan facility vs. €16.3B prior; €252.0B parked in deposit facility vs. €221.6B prior
- (AT) Austria Nov Producer Price Index M/M: -0.2% v -0.1% prior; Y/Y: 0.4% v 0.7% prior
- (CH) SNB releases Nov balance sheet data: Foreign Currency Investments: CHF428.3B v CHF426.8B m/m
- (SE) Sweden Nov Trade Balance (SEK): 3.6B v 4.0Be
- (NL) Netherlands Dec Producer Confidence: -5.7 v -6.5e
- (SE) Sweden Oct Non-Manual Workers Wages Y/Y: 2.7% v 2.7% prior
- (SE) Sweden Nov Retail Sales M/M: 0.3% v 0.2%e; Y/Y: 0.9% v 1.0%e
- (IT) Italy Nov PPI M/M: -0.1% v -0.2%e; Y/Y: 2.2% v 2.1%e
- (DE) Germany Dec CPI Hesse M/M: +0.9% v -0.2% prior; Y/Y: 2.2% v 1.8% prior
- (ES) Spain Oct Current Account: +0.9B v -€0.4B prior

Fixed Income:
- (IN) India sold total INR120B vs. INR120B indicated in 2020, 2025 and 2042 bonds
- (IT) Italy Debt Agency (Tesoro) sold total €5.88B vs. €6.0B indicated in 2017 and 2022 BTP bonds
- Sold €2.87B vs. €3.0B indicated in 3.5% Nov 2017 BTP Bond; Avg Yield 3.26% v 3.23% prior; Bid-to-cover: 1.29x v 1.24x prior
- Sold €3.0B vs. €3.0B indicated in 5.5% Nov 2022 BTP Bond; Avg Yield 4.48% v 4.45% prior; Bid-to-cover: 1.47x v 1.18x prior
- (EU) ECB allotted €89.7B vs. €73Be in 6-Day Main Refinancing Tender at fixed 0.75%

Asian stock market, economy and companies update (December 28, 2012)

***Markets Snapshot (as of 05:00 GMT)***
- Nikkei225 +0.6%
- S&P/ASX +0.5%
- Kospi +0.3%
- Shanghai Composite +0.3%
- Hang Seng +0.1%
- Mar S&P500 +0.1% at 1,412
- Feb gold -0.1% at $1,662/oz
- Feb Crude Oil +0.5% at $91.29/brl
- Asian equity markets traded in modestly positive territory, tracking late-session reversal in US indices on optimism over 11th hour fiscal cliff resolution. Dow Industrials erased a loss of about 150 points and SP500 bounced some 15 handles above 1,420 after reports that the GOP caucus has summoned back lawmakers to resume legislative session at 18:30ET on Sunday. Earlier negative sentiment was widely attributed to comments from Senate Majority Leader Reid warning the US will go over the fiscal cliff and tax rates will go up starting Jan 1 because the House is operating under the “dictatorship” of the Speaker. Note that in that momentum-changing conference call, speaker Boehner also said that the Feb/March timeframe, when the debt ceiling expires, is the true deadline for a fiscal deal, potentially setting up a “no-resolution” disappointment for Sunday evening.

- Japanese yen remained under pressure after a set of downbeat economic data from Tokyo. Dec Manufacturing PMI failed to impress despite the election of perceivably more pro-business LDP party, falling to 44-month low levels. Inflation data from Tokyo (December) as well as nationwide (November) remained in the red, prompting speculation of a more aggressive policy response from the BOJ starting with its January meeting. USD/JPY hit its multi-month highs within minutes after the CPI release, while several firms lowered their forecasts for the yen in 2013.

- In China, the minister of commerce noted trade growth for 2012 would undershoot targets. Separately, a MOFCOM researcher forecasted 2013 export growth to exceed 2012, but not by a large margin. AUD/USD has continued to consolidate its losses last week, contained in the $1.0340-90 range.
***Currencies/Fixed Income/Commodities***
- USD/JPY: Nomura raises forecast to ¥90 from ¥85 by end of June 2013 – financial press
- USD/JPY: JPMorgan raises 2013-end target to ¥87 from ¥79 target – financial press
- USD/JPY: Extending gains above ¥86.60 following continued negative inflation data out of Japan
- (US) API PETROLEUM INVENTORIES CRUDE: -1.17M V -1.5ME (Second consecutive draw); GASOLINE: +2.41M V +500KE; DISTILLATE: +2.95M V +500KE; UTILIZATION: 91.6% V 91.6% W/W
- (US) Weekly Fed Balance Sheet Assets Week ending Dec 26th: $2.889T v $2.902T prior; M1: -$44.5B v +$8.2B prior; M2: +$36.3B v +$54.8B prior
- (BR) Brazil Central Bank revising reserve requirement on demand deposits to release up to BRL15B for new lending – financial press
***Speakers/Political/In the Papers***
- (CN) China Commerce Min Deming: Sees trade growth in 2012 at 6% v 10% official target – Chinese press
- (CN) China Finance Ministry: China financial system is facing higher risks due to rising bank loans; Lending to property and local govts is a particular concern – Shanghai Daily (update)
- (CN) China Commerce Ministry (MOFCOM) researcher Liu Jianying: China exports for 2013 will rise y/y but will not see large improvements – financial press
- (CN) China may announce new measures to boost consumption – financial press
- (CN) China Q4 Beige Book compiled by CBB International sees stronger manufacturing and real estate sectors – Chinese press (update)
- USD/JPY: (JP) Japan Chamber of Commerce and Industry Chairman Okamura: Desirable exchange rate for USD/JPY is ¥85-90 – Nikkei News
- (JP) BoJ Gov Shirakawa held talks with Fin Min Aso; did not discuss monetary policy – financial press
- (JP) Japan Fin Min Aso: Rising Tokyo stocks likely reflect hopes for the PM Abe’s planned econ measures.
- (JP) Japan Industry Min Motegi: Impossible to abandon nuclear fuel cycle policy anytime soon – Yomiuri News
- (JP) Approval rating for Japan new PM Abe’s cabinet starts at 62%, below 71% starting level his cabinet saw the last time he became PM in 2006 – Nikkei News polls
- (KR) Bank of Korea official: Current account expected to dwindle in Dec – financial press
- (KR) South Korea International Trade Association (KITA): Exporters sentiment expected to remain downbeat in early 2013 – Korean press
- (KR) According to South Korea’s Financial Supervisory Service (FSS), monthly loan delinquency ratio for Korea’s 18 local banks in Nov fell 0.08pts to 1.30% – Korean press
- Fujitsu 6702.JP: Pres: Likely to miss FY12/13 PC sales target of 7M units due to weak demand from Europe – financial press (update)
- Sharp 6753.JP: To unveil 80in LCD TVs in Middle East and Africa markets – Nikkei News
- 6753.JP: First-round payments for new investment from Qualcomm have been completed – Nikkei News (update)
- 6753.JP: Apple said to be evaluating possibility of using Sharp’s IGZO displays in iPad, iPad mini and iPhone products in 2013 – DigiTimes (update)
- Nikon 7731.JP: Precision equipment unit expected to report op profit of more than ¥16B in FY13/14, up over 50% y/y expectations – Nikkei News
- Dic Corp 4631.JP: May report 9-mont op profit around ¥28B, +4% y/y; Rev seen at ¥530B, – 6% y/y – Nikkei News
- IHI 7013.JP: To start construction of vessels used in shipments of natural resouces through investment of 30% stake in Brazil’s Atlantico Sul Shipyard – Nikkei News
- LEI.AU: Awarded A$1.2B in contracts for Ichthys project – filing
- NXY: CNOOC official: Expects Nexen deal to be closed in Q1 at the earliest – financial press
- Lenovo 992.HK: Chairman Yang said to have reduced stake in company to around 9.0% from 9.3% prior- financial press
- AUO: Said to have obtained OGS touch panel orders from Sony – DigiTimes (update)
***Economic Data***
- (JP) JAPAN DEC TOKYO CPI Y/Y: -0.6% V -0.6%E; TOKYO CPI EX-FRESH FOOD: -0.6% V -0.5%E (biggest decline in 5 months)
- (JP) JAPAN DEC MARKIT/JMMA MANUFACTURING PMI: 45.0 V 46.5 PRIOR (lowest reading since Apr 2009)
- (JP) JAPAN NOV JOBLESS RATE: 4.1% V 4.2%E (14-month low); JOB-TO-APPLICANT RATIO: 0.80 V 0.80E
- (JP) JAPAN NOV OVERALL HOUSEHOLD SPENDING Y/Y: 0.2% V 0.7%E (3-month high)
- (JP) JAPAN NOV RETAIL TRADE M/M: 0.0% V 0.4%E; Y/Y: 1.3% V 1.1%E (3-month high); LARGE RETAILERS’ SALES: +0.9% V -0.4%E
- (JP) JAPAN NOV LABOR CASH EARNINGS Y/Y: -1.1% V -0.4%E (biggest decline in 4 months)
- (JP) Japan investors bought net ¥428.2B in Foreign Bonds last week vs bought net ¥918.0B prior week; Foreign Investors bought net ¥764.9B in Japan stocks last week vs bought net ¥389.6B in prior week

Singapore stock market and companies daily report (Keppel Offshore, Nam Cheong International, Q & M Dental Group) (December 28, 2012)

Keppel O&M Inks Contracts Worth $420m
Keppel Offshore and Marine’s subsidiaries had bagged contracts totalling $420 million for shipbuilding and upgrading work. Keppel Singmarine, which builds specialised ships, secured two contracts. It will build a deepwater pipelay vessel for a McDermott International subsidiary called Hydro Marine Services and begin work in 1Q13. Keppel Singmarine will also construct a catamaran air dive support vessel for Australia-based Bhagwan Marine that will be deployed to the north west of Western Australia after it is completed in 1Q14. In addition, Keppel Shipyard has secured new contract from EMAS Offshore Construction and Production to modify and upgrade an existing Floating Production Storage and Offloading facility, Lewek Arunothai.
Significance: The latest three new contracts have boosted Keppel O&M’s total order wins for 2012 to $9.9 billion. Moving into 2013, Keppel O&M said it will be a busy year as it continues to focus on the quality execution of all its projects.

Nam Cheong Secures US$56.4m Sale Contracts; Order Book Hits RM1.5b
Nam Cheong’s subsidiary, Nam Cheong International had sold one Platform Supply Vessel (PSV) and two Anchor Handling Towing Supply (AHTS) vessels worth a total of US$56.4 million ($69 million). These new contracts bring the total number of vessels sold by Nam Cheong this year to a record 21, surpassing past year’s numbers to register an all-time high for annual vessel sales in its corporate history. The PSV and AHTS vessels are being constructed as part of the group’s build-to-stock series in one of Nam Cheong’s subcontracted yards in China. Each vessel is ABS class.
Significance: This latest slew of contract wins bring Nam Cheong’s order book to RM1.45 billion to date, and is expected to contribute positively to its earnings for FY12 and FY13.

Q & M Makes $22.7m Takeover Bid For Singapore Medical Group
Q & M Dental Group (Singapore) announced a $22.65 million takeover bid for Catalist-listed Singapore Medical Group (SMG) to expand into the medical specialist healthcare practice. Q & M is offering $0.1323 a share for SMG, which is a 41 percent premium over SMG’s last traded share price of 9.4 cents on 21 December. The dental group will purchase a 72.6 percent stake from two substantial shareholders, SMG chairman Felix Huang and chief executive officer Xiaoyan Baumann Geb Bi, for a total of $14 million. The proposed transaction triggers a mandatory general offer for the remaining shares of SMG at $0.1323 cents a share. Barring any unforeseen circumstances, the proposed deal is expected to complete in 2Q13.
Significance: The move gives Q & M a good platform to springboard into the medical scene as it plans to set up a chain of general medical practices in the near future. SMG currently operates 15 medical clinics in Singapore with a patient database in excess of 80,000.

Indian stock market and companies daily report (December 28, 2012, Friday)

The Indian market is expected to open flat tracking flattish start to SGX Nifty. Most Asian markets are however trading in the green on falling consumer prices in Japan which has raised speculations that the Japanese central bank will respond to government calls for more asset purchases.

The U.S. markets staged a substantial recovery attempt late in the session on Thursday before ending the day roughly flat. Uncertainty about the looming fiscal cliff contributed to the volatility on Wall Street. The consumer confidence index in U.S. fell to 65.1 in December 2012 from a downwardly revised 71.5 in November 2012. Meanwhile, traders largely shrugged off a report from the Labor Department showing an unexpected drop in initial jobless claims in the week ended December 22, 2012. The Commerce Department also released a report showing a rebound in November new home sales, which reached their highest level in over two years.

Meanwhile in India, domestic shares remained volatile on Thursday as traders rolled over positions in the derivatives segment ahead of the expiry period. Going ahead, developments in U.S. are likely to remain in focus, although traders may also keep an eye on reports on Chicago area business activity and pending home sales
Markets Today

The trend deciding level for the day is 19,377 / 5,889 levels. If NIFTY trades above this level during the first half-an-hour of trade then we may witness a further rally up to 19,451 – 19,579 / 5,912 – 5,955 levels. However, if NIFTY trades below 19,377 / 5,889 levels for the first half-an-hour of trade then it may correct up to 19,249 – 19,175 / 5,846 – 5,822 levels.
L&T hydrocarbon bags orders worth Rs.781cr

Larsen & Toubro (L&T) has bagged an order worth Rs.781cr from ONGC in the hydrocarbon segment for 3 Wellhead platforms. The offshore contract comprises of total Engineering Procurement Construction & Installation (EPCI) of three wellhead platforms, spread over Heera and South Heera fields of the ONGC. We continue to maintain our Accumulate rating on the stock with a target price of ?1,748.
Bank of India increases deposit rates

Bank of India has increased the interest rates on deposits of Rs.10cr and above for maturity between 1-2 years by 25bp to 9%, w.e.f December 27, 2012. Recently Dena Bank and Federal Bank had also revised its retail term deposit rates by 35bp and 25bp in maturity between 1-2years and 1-3years, respectively. Increase in deposit rates, in our view, is partly due to asset liability mismatch (as clearly affirmed by Dena Bank management, in their case) and due to moderating deposit growth and tightening liquidity situation. Even going ahead, deposit growth can be expected to remain moderate as real interest rates continue to remain negative (considering CPI inflation remaining at levels of 10%) and scheduled line up of tax free bonds of infra-finance companies. Recent increase in stock prices has resulted in Bank of India trading at 0.9x FY2014E ABV. We would recommend Neutral on Bank of India.
Economic and Political News

- Rs.10/litre hike in diesel, kerosene if Oil Ministry proposal okayed

- Oil slips below US$111 on US budget worries

- Government notifies MCX-SX as recognised stock exchange

- Power generation at Dabhol plunges on dwindling gas supplies
Corporate News

- Aurobindo gets USFDA approval for Nafcillin injections

- Realty sector in Bangalore to see demand in 2013

- Kalpataru Power Transmission bags orders worth Rs.955cr

- Office space absorption dips 23% in 2012: Cushman & Wakefield

- UP mills bitter with sugarcane arrears of Rs.1,580cr

- Clariant sells units, includes India business for US$550mn

- Bristol-Myers sues Dr ReddyRs.s for patent breach in US

- Tata Sons pledges shares worth Rs.2,600cr in group companies

- CCI approves proposed merger of DHFL and its two arms

Indian stock market daily morning report (December 28, 2012, Friday)

Views on markets today

- The BSE Sensex declined 93.66 points or 0.48% to close at 19,323.80 and Nifty50 snapped 35.50 points or 0.60% to close at 5,870.10 led by stocks of IT, Oil & Gas and F&O expiry.

- Meanwhile, private oil & gas producer Reliance Industries and software services exporter Infosys fell 1% each. FMCG majors too saw selling pressure; ITC and Hindustan Unilever were down 0.5-1%.

- Larsen & Toubro Hydrocarbon Wins Rs.781Cr Contract for ONGC Platforms.

- Bharti Infratel, one of the largest telecom tower infrastructure service providers in India, is set to list its equity shares on the BSE and NSE on Friday.

- Among the 13 sectoral indices, eleven sectors closed in negative, while remaining two sectors closed in positive. Top Gainers: BSE PSU up by 0.09%, BSE Auto gained by 0.09%. Top Losers: BSE IT down by 0.77%, BSE Oil & Gas snapped by 0.69% and BSE Metal declined by 0.65%.

- Market breadth was negative at ~0.74x as investors sold large cap stocks. On provisional basis, FII sold equity of Rs.1.33bn and domestic institutions bought equity of Rs.1.33bn in cash segment.

- Asian markets trading higher, after a late recovery in the US benchmark indices.

- We expect a positive opening for the Indian markets, tracking the cues from the Asian stocks which are positive ahead of the fiscal cliff.
Economic and Corporate Developments

- The Empowered Group of Ministers on spectrum, headed by Finance P Chidambaram, is likely to meet next week to discuss details of spectrum auction. Government sources said the meeting is proposed to be held in the second half of next week.
Buzzing Stocks

- GMR Group has walked out of the 555km Ahmedabad Highway

- Maruti considering to set up its 1st overseas assembly plant in Africa as it seeks to revive exports Agencies

- ICICI Bank to raise Rs. 2500cr by issuing 10yr lower Tier II bonds

- Suzlon lenders to discuss CDR package today

- Bristol Myers sues Dr. ReddyRs.s for patent infringement over cancer drug Ixempra.

- L&T Hydrocarbon wins Rs.781 cr contract for ONGC Platforms

- Power Ministry says CIL should be penalized for not supplying coal as per commitment

- Union Bank of India board approves raising capital via QIP/pref issue/rights issue

- Cholamandalam Board OKs raising cap up to Rs.300 cr via issue of securities

- Chettinad Cements board meets today to consider delisting

Malaysia stock market and companies daily report (December 28, 2012)

Felda Global Ventures’ Dilemma On Tradewinds Stake
Felda Global Ventures Holdings (FGVH) is in the midst of discussion to either retain or dispose its 20 percent stake in Tradewinds (M). “So far, there is no final decision by the FGVH management for a possible disposal, given the strategic importance of Tradewinds’ stake to FGVH,” a source said. FGVH’s stake in Tradewinds which it acquired for RM208 million two years ago from Grenfell holdings, a unit owned by PPB Group, would generate a one-off disposal gain of approximately RM50 million based on the offer price. On 24 December, Tan Sri Syed Mokhtar Al-Bukhary through his various private companies made a conditional takeover offer to acquire all of the remaining stakes not already owned in Tradewinds for RM9.30 a share. The proposal is expected to trigger the privatisation of Tradewinds’ listed plantation group, Tradewinds Plantation and the country’s sole rice importer Padiberas Nasional (Bernas).
Significance: Although the stake in Tradewinds is only 20 percent, it is quite strategic in line with FGVH’s core business. Furthermore, it also contributes positively to FGVH’s earnings of about RM95 million per annum in 2010 and 2011, respectively. This has made FGV’s decision rather significant.

Sunchirin Plans To Privatise
The automobile components manufacturer, Sunchirin Industries (M) is planning for a privatisation exercise, aimed at reducing its capital and creating an exit strategy for its shareholders. The exercise is believed to be to facilitate a reorganisation of the company’s operations. The company’s major shareholders Nichirin, Sunrise Industry, Sunrise Asia Management and its executive chairman Masahito Hiraishi have proposed a selective capital reduction and repayment exercise to restructure Sunchirin’s operations. The group announced the offer price at RM1.80 per share, from a capital repayment of RM33.7 million. Upon completion of the proposal, Sunchirin’s shares will be reduced from RM38.4 million, currently, to just RM4.7 million. Sunchirin said the capital repayment should offer shareholders a “reasonable exit value by realising their investments at a premium of approximately 13.21 percent, 13.92 percent and 13.92 percent to the five-day, one-month and three-month volume weighted average market price until 24 December of RM1.59, RM1.58 and RM1.58, respectively”.
Significance: The privatisation exercise is expected to maintain stable and sustainable growth for Sunchirin. This is to allow the company greater flexibility to implement its expansion plans, without affecting its shareholders.

Kenanga Research Expects Higher Sales From Guan Chong In FY13
Kenanga Research is optimistic that Guan Chong will achieve higher sales volume next year in spite of lower cocoa prices which has dampened the industry outlook. “We believe the sales of cocoa butter will gradually pick up ahead to help fill the new additional total capacity of 200,000 metric tonnes per annum next year.” In a note, the research house further stated that increase in sales volume will help offset the impact from low cocoa prices. While the traditional markets slow down, sales will tap into a growing demand for cocoa-based food and beverage products in the emerging markets. Even though Guan Chong’s nine-month results usually account for 55 percent to 73 percent of its full-year results in the past years, the research house is taking a conservative stance on the company. This is mainly due to sluggish cocoa prices.
Significance: Kenanga Research has reduced its earnings estimates for FY12 by 10.3 percent to RM127.4 million and is maintaining its FY13 estimates at RM144.3 million at the back of a better outlook for next year. In line with this adjustment, its target price for Guan Chong has been lowered to RM2 from RM2.40.

Currency pairs technical review (December 27, 2012)


The pair has tested the Moving Average (500) at 1.32695, this level is a resistance for the pair.

Resistance: 1.33143, 1.34882, 1.35984

Support: 1.31674, 1.30277, 1.28630


The pair is aiming to test the median line at 1.60322, in case the pair will stay below 1.62050.

Resistance: 1.62050, 1.63316, 1.64636

Support: 1.60322, 1.58543, 1.56722


The pair has broken the median line and reached 0.91079. If the pair stays below this level the pair will decline to 0.89635.

Resistance: 0.92026, 0.93069, 0.93949

Support: 0.91079, 0.89635, 0.88418


The pair has risen to 85.960 and has unclosed gap at 84.866.

Resistance: 85.960, 86.861, 87.728

Support: 84.866, 83.933, 83.065


The pair has declined to the Moving Average (200) 1.03535. This is a support level for the pair. If the pair stays above this level the pair will rise to 1.04407.

Resistance: 1.04407, 1.05332, 1.06164

Support: 1.03535, 1.02558, 1.01744

Gold and silver daily review (December 27, 2012)


Spot gold prices swung between gains and losses and settled 0.2 percent higher. Worries over the US fiscal cliff issues created bearish market sentiments while expectation of more stimulus announcement by the bank of Japan supported an upside in the gold prices. Weakness in the DX also acted as a supportive factor for the gold prices.

The yellow metal touched an intra-day high of $ 1,667.51/oz and closed at $ 1659.8 per ounce on Tuesday. On the MCX, Gold February contract ended 0.5 percent lower on account of appreciation in the Indian rupee. Gold prices on the MCX closed at Rs. 30,698/10 gms on Tuesday after touching a low of Rs. 30,661/ 10gms.

Spot silver prices rose 0.3 percent taking cues from trend in the spot gold prices. Weakness in the DX also supported an upside in the silver prices.

The white metal touched an intra-day high of $ 30.2/oz and closed at $ 30 per oz on Tuesday. In the Indian markets, MCX silver prices fell 0.4 percent and closed at Rs. 57,472/kg on Tuesday and touched an intraday low of Rs. 57,270/ kg. Appreciation in the Indian rupee also pressurized silver prices on MCX.

In the intra-day, we expect precious metals to remain volatile as the investors are adopting a cautious approach as the US fiscal cliff issue remains unresolved yet while US lawmakers resume talks over the same which is nearing the deadline. Weakness in the DX is likely to support an upside in the gold prices. In the domestic markets, appreciation in the Rupee will exert downside pressure on the MCX precious metal.

Oil and natural gas daily review (December 27, 2012)

Crude Oil

Nymex crude oil prices gained by 2.7 percent taking cues from expectations that US President Barack Obama will resume talks to avoid spending cuts and tax gains which can threat the economy.

Additionally, weakness in the DX also supported an upside in the oil prices. Crude oil prices touched an intra-day high of $91.30/bbl and closed at $91.08/bbl in yesterday’s trading session.

On the domestic bourses, prices gained by 1.5 percent and closed at Rs.4,983/bbl after touching an intra-day high of Rs.5,008/bbl on Wednesday. However, appreciation in the Indian Rupee capped sharp gains in the prices on the MCX.
API Inventories Forecast

The American Petroleum Institute (API) is scheduled to release its weekly inventories today and US crude oil inventories are expected to decline by 1.9 million barrels for the week ending on 21st December 2012. Gasoline stocks are expected to rise by 0.4 million barrels and distillate inventories are expected to fall by 0.9 million barrels for the same week.

In the intra-day we expect crude oil prices to trade with a firm note as talks amongst the US law makers resume to avert the $600 billion tax increases and spending cuts which would commence on January 1st 2013. Weakness in the DX might support an upside in the crude oil prices. In the domestic market appreciation in the rupee is likely to cap gains in the crude oil prices on MCX.